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WOODSIDE LIBRARY NATIVE PLANT GARDEN PLANT LIST

Woodside Library Native Plant Garden Brochure

Alphabetical Listing of Plants Found in the Woodside Library Native Garden

**CLICK ON PHOTOS TO ENLARGE**

Map of the Garden

BED 1

AQUILEGIA formosa

Western Columbine. Perennial

Aquilegia formosa is a common and attractive wildflower native to western North America, from Alaska to Baja California, and eastward to Montana and Wyoming

BETULA occidentalis

Water Birch or Red Birch. Tree

Betula occidentalis is a species of birch native to western North America. It typically occurs along streams in mountainous regions. It is the only native birch found at low altitudes in the SE United States.

CARPENTERIA californica

Tree anemone or Bush anemone. Evergreen Shrub

Carpenteria californica, the sole species in the genus Carpenteria, is a flowering evergreen shrub native to California. It is closely related to the genus Philadelphus.

PHILADELPHUS lewisii

Lewis's Mock-Orange. Deciduous Shrub

Philadelphus lewisii is native to western North America. It is widespread but not very common, usually appearing as an individual plant amongst other species. It was first collected by Meriwether Lewis in 1806.

CORNUS sericea, C. sessilis

Blackfruit Cornel, Blackfruit Dogwood or Miner's Dogwood. Deciduous Tree

Cornus sessilis is a shrub or small tree which is endemic to northern California, where it grows along stream banks in the Cascades, Sierra Nevada, and the coastal mountain ranges. It is a tree of the redwood understory in its native range. The fruit attracts many birds.

ASARUM caudatum

British Columbia Wild Ginger, Western Wild Ginger or Long-tailed Wild Ginger.


Asarum caudatum is native to rich moist forests of western North America from British Columbia to California and as far east as western Montana.

The leaves emit a ginger aroma when rubbed.

WOODWARDIA fimbriata

Giant Chain Fern

Woodwardia fimbriata is native to western North America from British Columbia through California, including the Sierra Nevada, into Baja California. It grows in coniferous forests and other moist wooded habitat.

OXALIS oregano

Redwood Sorrel, Oregon Oxalis. Herbaceous Perennial

Oxalis oregana is native to moist Douglas-fir and coast redwood forests of western North America from southwestern British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, and California.

THALICTRUM fendleri

Fendler's Meadow-Rue. Perennial Herb

Thalictrum fendleri is native to western North America, including much of the western United States and northern Mexico. It is a common plant found in many types of habitat.

LOBELIA dunni

Dunn's Lobelia

Lobelia dunnii is native to California, and Baja California. Blooms June–October. Usually found on the banks of streams, pools or other wet places.

MIMULUS cardinalis

Scarlet Monkeyflower. Perennial

Mimulus cardinalis is a fairly large, spreading, attractive plant. Native to the West Coast and Southwestern United States and Baja California, it is generally found at low elevation in moist areas.

BED 2

DUDLEYA pulverulenta

Chalk Lettuce, Chalk dudleya, Chalk Liveforever. Succulent

Dudleya pulverulenta is native to the southwestern United States and northern Mexico, where it is found in steep open rocky areas in coastal and inland mountains and desert foothills, such as the Santa Monica Mountains. The plant tolerates full sun exposure or part shade.

LIMNANTHES douglasii

Meadowfoam, Poached Egg Plant, Douglas' Meadowfoam.

Limnanthes douglasii is a species of annual flowering plant and is native to California and Oregon, where it grows in wet, grassy habitat, such as vernal pools and spring meadows. It can grow in poorly drained clay soils. The plant was collected by the Scottish explorer and botanist David Douglas, who worked on the west coast of America in the 1820s.

This plant has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.

MONARDELLA odorissima

Mountain Coyote Mint, Mountain Beebalm, Mountain Pennyroyal. Perennial

Monardella odoratissima, a perennial herb, grows in mountain forests and sagebrush scrub. It is a member of the Lamiaceae, or mint family. It has the minty odor characteristic of this family.

SEDUM oreganum

Oregon Stonecrop. Succulent

Sedum oreganum is a species of succulent plant of the genus Sedum. It grows along the Pacific Coast of North America from Alaska to far northern California. The plant grows in many types of rocky habitat, including coastal bluffs and cliffs and the talus of higher inland mountains.

BED 3

RHAMNUS tomentella

Hoary Coffeeberry, Mountain Coffeeberry. Broadleaf Evergreen Shrub

Rhamnus tomentella blooms in spring and then produces small fruits that change from green to red to black when ripe. The berries are great for attracting birds and other wildlife. These shrubs are drought tolerant once established and appreciate full sun.

AESCULUS californica

California Buckeye, California Horse-chestnut. Small tree

Aesculus californica is native to California and southwestern Oregon. It is found growing in a wide range of conditions from crowded, moist, semi-shaded canyon bottoms to dry south-facing slopes and hilltops.

Local native American tribes used the poisonous nuts to stupefy schools of fish in small streams to make them easier to catch.

BACCHARIS pilularis

Coyote Brush, Coyote Bush, Chaparral Broom, Bush Baccharis. Shrub

Baccharis pilularis is cultivated as an ornamental plant, and used frequently in drought tolerant, native plant, and wildlife gardens; and in natural landscaping and habitat restoration projects. The cultivar ground cover selections have various qualities of height and spread, leaf colors, and textures. The upright forms are useful for hedges and fence lines, and year round foliage.

Usually deer-resistant, it is also drought tolerant after maturity, requiring watering once a week until established, and then about once per month during the first summer. They can mature in one to two years. The plants prefer good drainage.

BED 4

ACHILLEA millefolium

Yarrow, Plumajillo, Gordaldo, Nosebleen Plant, Old Man's Pepper, Devil's Nettle, Sanquinary, Milfoil, Soldier's Woundwort, Thousand-leaf, Thousand-seal.

Achillea millefolium is native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere in Asia, Europe, and North America. In New Mexico and southern Colorado, it is called plumajillo (Spanish for 'little feather') from its leaf shape and texture. In antiquity, yarrow was known as herbal used in staunching the flow of blood from wounds.

ARTEMISIA pycnocephala

Beach Wormwood, Sandhill Sage, Coastal Sagewort. Perennial

Artemisia pycnocephala is a species of sagebrush native to the western United States coastline extending from Oregon to Central California.

SALVIA clevelandii 'Winnifred Gilman'

Sage.

Salvia clevelandii 'Winnifred Gilman' is a selection of California Blue Sage, Salvia clevelandii, with flowering commencing in late spring or early summer and continues for about a month. Plant in full sun in a well-drained soil. This native chaparral plant will survive on very little to no supplemental irrigation but plants are more attractive if given an occasional deep watering, so long as the soil drains well.

To keep a dense and more attractive plant, cut back in the winter by about a third or more when young - once mature with woody stems, only tip prune. The foliage of Blue Sage has a very nice fragrance that has been described as "clean, like a sweet desert morning" and the flowers to emit a pleasant aroma - both fresh and dry calyces are useful in flower arrangements.

Salvia clevelandii 'Winnifred Gilman' was originally released without collection data at a Strybing Arboretum (now the San Francisco Botanic Garden) plant sale in 1964, named for one of their volunteer propagators.

BED 5

DARMERA peltata

Indian rhubarb, Umbrella Plant. Perennial

Darmera peltata is a slowly spreading rhizomatous perennial native to mountain streamsides in woodland in the western United States (southwestern Oregon to northwestern California).

In late spring the flowers emerge before the leaves and the leaves turn red in autumn. In gardens, it flourishes in pond margins and bog gardens, where it forms an imposing umbrella-like clump.

Darmera peltata has been awarded the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.

SPIRAEA douglasii

Hardhack, Hardhack Steeplebush, Douglas' Spirea, Rose Spirea.

Spiraea douglasii is native to western North America from Alaska across southwestern Canada and the Pacific Northwest. It grows most often in swamps, streambanks, bogs and mudflats.

Large clusters of small pink flowers form spires in early summer, later turning dark and persisting. This plant is used as an ornamental in landscaping, where it grows best in sunny, moist places.

CORNUS sessilis

Blackfruit Cornel, Blackfruit Dogwood or Miner's Dogwood. Deciduous Tree

Cornus sessilis is a shrub or small tree which is endemic to northern California, where it grows along stream banks in the Cascades, Sierra Nevada, and the coastal mountain ranges. It is a tree of the redwood understory in its native range. The fruit attracts many birds.

POTENTILLA gracilis

Slender Cinquefoil, Graceful Cinquefoil. Perennial Herb

Potentilla gracillis is native from San Diego to B.C.. It likes full sun and regular water. It will normally flower for about the month of July.

BED 6

ARCTOSTAPHYLOS ‘Radiant'

Radiant Manzanita. Evergreen Ground Cover

Arctostaphylos 'Radiant' is native throughout the northern US and has pink flowers and red berries. Radiant manzanita likes part shade inland to full sun near coast or where the days stay below 90F. Prefers sandy soils with organic matter, but will tolerate most soils as long as there is some drainage and moisture.

If rain fall is less than 35" supplement summer water 1/week will be needed. It can also be used in place of a lawn. Uses a little less water and doesn't have to be mowed. Tolerates sand and clay; great for a bird garden.

ARCTOSTAPHYLOS ‘Emerald Carpet'

Carpet Manzanita, Bearberry. Evergreen Shrub.

Arctostaphylos 'Emerald Carpet' is a low-growing shrub with small glossy deep green leaves that nearly hide the attractive cinnamon red stems with exfoliating bark. Small white flowers appear in mid-winter through spring and are followed by red fruit. Flowering is somewhat sparse on this cultivar but has attractive form and foliage.

This manzanita grows best in a rich, slightly acid and loamy well-draining soil. Requires occasional irrigation. Good as a groundcover between a lawn and more drought tolerant plants or as a non-walkable lawn substitute.

It is notable as being less inclinded to suffer leaf spots and die back than other manzanita when planted in heavier soils and given regular irrigation. It was originally collected by Percy Everett of the Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden in 1969.

The name Arctostaphylos was given to the genus by the French (of Scottish descent) naturalist Michel Adanson (1707-1778). The name comes from the Greek words 'arktos' meaning "bear" and 'staphyle' meaning "grapes" in reference to bears eating the fruit.

ARCTOSTAPHYLOS ‘Howard McMinn'

Manzanita. Evergreen Shrub

Arctostaphylos densiflora is a medium-sized shrub, but can be kept smaller with pruning. Blooms late winter into spring. Plant in full sun to light shade. Though it requires little irrigation in coastal gardens, this plant can tolerate occasional watering, even overhead, which makes it both drought and garden tolerant.

This selection of the Vine Hill Manzanita, Arctostaphylos densiflora, a species (some consider it a possible hybrid between A. manzanita and A. stanfordiana) with a very restricted natural range near Sebastopol in Sonoma County. It is considered to be one of the most dependable and adaptable manzanitas and it can be grown in sandy or heavy soils on the coast in full sun and in inland gardens with some shade.

Introduced by the Saratoga Horticultural Foundation in 1955 from plants given to them by Howard McMinn, the native plant author and Mills College Botany Professor in Oakland. Received the Award of Merit from the California Horticultural Society in 1956.

ARCTOSTAPHYLOS hookeri ssp. hearstiorum

Manzanita. Evergreen Shrub.

A very attractive low growing manzanita good for coastal gardens. It will root at nodes where it touches ground. Known from only 5 occurrences in the Arroyo de la Cruz area near Hearst's Castle. Threatened by grazing.

ARCTOSTAPHYLOS pajaroensis

Manzanita.

Arctostaphylos pajaroensis is a species of manzanita known by the common name Pajaro manzanita. It is endemic to California, where it is known mainly from Monterey County.

Historical occurrences have been noted in Santa Cruz County and far western San Benito County. It is a member of the chaparral plant community.

Arctostaphylos pajaroensis is an erect shrub growing at least 3.3 ft. tall and known to exceed 13 ft. in height. The shrub flowers in the winter, bearing large loose inflorescences of pink to nearly white urn-shaped flowers. The fruit is a drupe about 7 millimeters wide.

CEANOTHUS ‘Yankee Point'

Yankee Point Ceanothus. Groundcover

Ceanothus griseus var. horizontalis 'Yankee Point' is by far, the most commonly planted selection of ceanothus in California. This fast-growing, durable groundcover reaches 2 to 3 feet tall and spreads 8 to 12 or more feet wide.

Plants bear 1 1/2 inch long, glossy, dark green leaves and bright blue flower clusters in winter through early spring. Despite its coastal origins, ‘Yankee Point' will grow inland with no watering once established when sited in partial shade.

American botanist William Trelease originally described it in 1897. In 1942 Mills College botany profressor Howard McMinn found it growing on wind swept bluffs in Monterey County. This cultivar was selected in 1954 by Maunsell Van Rensselaer (past director of the Santa Barbara Botanic Garden), from his original collection of four plants that came from Yankee Point, a rocky, exposed bluff in northern Monterey County.

X Chiranthofremontia lenzii

Evergreen Tree

The name describes the "cross" or hybrid developed by a California nurseryman in 1981 who placed the pollen of Fremontodendron, a small tree of California's chaparral with golden flowers, on the stigma of a Mexican hand tree, Chiranthodendron pentadactylon.

Chiranthodendron, the female parent, was first noted by Cortez, the conqueror of the Aztec Empire in 1520, who found it growing in Montezuma's gardens. The Aztecs crushed the leaves and bark into a potion for treating eyes and easing pain.

Blooms six to eight months a year.

DUDLEYA cymosa

Canyon Live-Forever. Succulent

Dudleya cymosa is found in rocky areas in the low elevations of California and southern Oregon mountains. It is the larval host plant for the Sonoran blue butterfly, Philotes sonorensis (Lycaenidae)

DUDLEYA ‘Frank Reinelt'

Live-forever. Succulent

The beautiful Dudleya ‘Frank Reinelt' will form dense mounds 6 - 8 inches tall with silvery finger-like leaves. They make handsome specimens in a rock garden or perform as a striking groundcover in mass plantings mixed with other coastal bluff plants like red buckwheat, seaside daisy, and sea thrift. Avoid over-watering and control snails. Full sun to light shade with good drainage.

ERIOGONUM arborescens

Buckwheat, Santa Cruz Island Buckweat. Shrub

Eriogonum arborescens is endemic to the Channel Islands of California.

This is an uncommon plant in its native range on a few of the Channel Islands. It has also been planted as highway landscaping on mainland California, where the shrub is not native.

QUERCUS lobata

Valley Oak. Tree

Quercus lobata grows into the largest of North American oaks. It is endemic to California, growing in the hot interior valleys and foothills. Mature specimens may attain an age of up to 600 years. This deciduous oak requires year-round access to groundwater.

Its thick, ridged bark is characteristic and evokes alligator hide. The valley oak's deeply lobed leaves assist in identification.

SALVIA sonomensis

Sonoma Sage, Creeping Sage. Perennial

Salvia sonomensis is endemic to California. S. sonomensis is found in three distinct areas in California: the California Coastal Range from Siskiyou to Napa county; from Monterey county to San Diego county; and in the Sierra Nevada foothills. It is always found growing under 2,000 m (6,600 ft) elevation on dry hillsides and woodlands.

SEDUM spathulifolium ‘Cape Blanco'

Cape Blanco Stonecrop. Evergreen Succulent

Brilliant silvery leaves make this a great choice for ground cover, container, rock garden or pathway accent. Clusters of tiny yellow flowers contrast nicely with the foliage, which takes on an attractive purplish tinge in cool weather. Thrives in the Pacific Northwest. Foliage is edible.

BED 7

RHUS integrifolia

Lemonade Berry, Lemonadeberry, Lemonade Sumac. Evergreen Small Tree/Shrub

Rhus integrifolia is native to the Transverse and Peninsular Ranges and the South Coast regions of Southern California.

It is a member of the chaparral plant community often found in canyons and on north-facing slopes below elevations of 3,000 ft.

Many plants within this genus are considered toxic, although some reports indicate the berries of this species can be used to make lemonade flavored drinks (hence its common name).

ERIOGONUM giganteum

St. Catherine's Lace.

Eriogonum giganteum is a species of wild buckwheat in Southern California. It is found in the Coastal sage scrub plant association habitat of the Coastal sage and chaparral sub-ecoregion.

Eriogonum giganteum is cultivated as an ornamental plant, for use in native plant, drought tolerant, and wildlife gardens, and in natural landscaping design projects.

It is a honey plant that supports a numerous diversity and count of pollinators when blooming. It especially supports pollinator insect species native to California, as most of the state's native buckwheats do. It is a very important butterfly nectar source plant.

ERIOGONUM fasciculatum

California Buckwheat, Eastern Mojave Buckwheat. Shrub

Eriogonum fasciculatum is a species of wild buckwheat and is native to the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico, where it grows on scrubby slopes and in chaparral and dry washes in a number of habitats.

Many Native American groups utilized parts of this plant for a number of medicinal uses, including the treatment of headache, diarrhea, and wounds. The Zuni people use a poultice of powdered root and apply it to cuts and arrow or bullet wounds.

This species is particularly attractive to honey bees (Apis mellifera) and is a good source of nectar over many months in dryer areas.

ADENOSTOMA fasciculatum (prostrate)

Prostrate Chamise. Grouncover

A dwarf Chamise that stays smaller than the regular variety and creeps along the ground. In the wild it occurs with Pinus remorata, Comarostaphylis diversifolia planifolia, Arctostaphylos insularis, Quercus parvula, Vaccinium ovatum, Quercus tomentella, and Ribes malvaceum.

Use as a small ground cover to fill in a pocket. Deer love this plant and Prostrate Chamise will take full sun near the coast or in the mountains but in the hot interior it likes part shade or afternoon shade.

Communities for Adenostoma fasciculatum:Chaparral and Coastal Sage Scrub.

ASCLEPIAS speciosa

Showy Milkweed. Perennial

Asclepias speciosa is native to the western half of North America. It flowers from May to September. Native Americans used fiber in the stems for rope, basketry, and nets. Some Native Americans believed the milky sap had medicinal qualities, however, most species of milkweed are toxic.

Asclepias speciosa is a specific Monarch butterfly food and habitat plant.

SALVIA 'Bee's Bliss'

Bee's Bliss Sage. Shrub

Salvia 'Bee's Bliss' is a native California shrub grows low to the ground, never exceeding 2 feet, and can reach 6 to 8 feet wide and draping over rocks or walls. It has an extended bloom with whorls of lavender-blue flowers on 1 foot long spikes from mid-spring into early summer, rising above the tomentose gray-green leaves.

Plant in full sun and water sparingly. This plant is quite drought tolerant, particularly in coastal gardens. Makes a great groundcover, particularly on slopes and attracts bees, butterflies, hummingbirds and other birds to the garden.

It is a garden hybrid that was selected in 1989 by Roger Raiche at the University of California Botanic Garden and named by Marcia Donahue.

BED 8

ARTEMISIA californica

California Sagebrush. Shrub

Artemisia californica grows in coastal sage scrub, coastal strand, chaparral, and dry foothill communities, from sea level to 2600 ft. It is native to California and Baja California.

Aromatic, it thrives in full sun, preferring to grow on west or north-facing slopes. It needs little water and prefers no water in the summer months.
Animals rarely eat Artemisia californica, probably due to the presence of bitter aromatic terpenes, but it does provide good cover for smaller birds and other animals that can fit between its stems. It is an important habitat plant for the endangered California Gnatcatcher.

CEANOTHUS impressus ‘Vandenberg'

Vandenberg Ceanothus. Shrub

Ceanothus impressus 'Vandenberg' grows 3 to 6 feet tall by 5 to 8 feet and requires little to no water in summer. Selected by M. Nevin Smith in the 1982 from Vandenberg Air Force Base in Santa Barbara County.

CEANOTHUS "Gloire de Versailles'

Californian Lilac. Deciduous Shrub

Ceanothus can be evergreen or deciduous shrubs or small trees. Species 'Gloire de Versailles' is a vigorous medium-sized deciduous shrub of rounded habit, with broadly oval, light green leaves and large panicles of scented powder-blue flowers. Best grown in full sun to part shade. Attracts butterflies.

EPILOBIUM (ZAUSCHNERIA) canum

California Fuchsia.

California fuchsia has a scientific name that has moved a lot. For the moment most them have been lumped together as Epilobium canum. Older names used: Zauschneria.

Gray foliage and green foliage and commonly grow where there is extra moisture in the winter and spring, gradually drying through fall. The prefer cool sun, but tolerate part-shade or hot sun with moisture.

ERIGERON ‘Wayne Roderick'

Wayne Roderick Daisy. Evergreen Perennial

Erigeron 'Wayne Roderick' has large lavender-blue flowers in the winter to spring. It is more heat tolerant than other Erigeron glaucus selections and the flowers are held higher above the foliage. Plant in full sun to part shade with occasional to regular irrigation in summer.

This plant is great for attracting bees & butterflies to the garden and tolerates heavy clay soil, seaside conditions and is fairly resistant to deer predation.

Named for Wayne Roderick, the legendary bay area plantsman, who reportedly found this spontaneous garden seedling hybrid of Erigeron glaucus. This is probably the most heat tolerant of the Seaside Daisies. As noted in Carol Bornstein, Dave Fross and Bart O'Brien's California Native Plants for the Garden "Seaside daisy performs best in coastal gardens and works well in mixed borders, meadows, or containers. In richer soils it looks better and blooms more profusely than it will in sandy or rocky soils. In inland gardens plants in full sun flower spectacularly throughout spring but often burn to a crisp during summer … individual seaside daisy plants have a useful garden life span of two to seven years."

ERIOGONUM grande var.rubescens

San Miguel Island Buckwheat. Evergreen Shrub

Eriogonum grande var. rubescens grows to 1 foot tall with the branches lying prostrate and spreading to 3 feet wide. It has in late spring through fall clusters of vivid pink flowers that are held above the foliage on 2 foot tall inflorescence.

Plant in full sun in sandy or even heavier clay soil with little to no irrigation. This great looking and durable buckwheat is both beautiful and also attracts butterflies. Native to San Miguel, Santa Cruz, and Santa Rosa islands in the Santa Barbara Channel Islands chain.

ERIOGONUM umbellatum

Buckwheat, Sulphur Flower. Perennial Herb or Shrub

Eriogonum umbellatum is native to western North America from California to Colorado to central Canada, where it is abundant and found in many habitats. This is an extremely variable plant and hard to identify because individuals can look very different from one another. Also, there are a great many varieties. The leaves are usually woolly and low on the plant, and the flowers come in many colors from white to bright yellow to purple. Native American groups utilized parts of this plant for a number of medicinal uses.

GRINDELIA hirsutula

Hairy Gumplant; Hairy Gumweed. Perennial Herb

Grindelia hirsutula is a species of flowering plant in the daisy family and is native to North America, including much of the west coast of the United States and the southern half of Canada. It grows in many habitats and climates. This is an erect perennial herb usually green in color but the stems are often red or purplish-brown and the leaves can be somewhat yellowish to reddish.

GRINDELIA angustifolia

Marsh gumplant. Evergreen perennial shrub

Grindelia stricta var. angustifolia grows to 3-5′ tall and 3-5′ wide.
Gumplants can be identified by the glossy, gummy liquid on the flower buds before they open (hence the name gumplant). In fact, the gummy substance was once made into a chewing gum and an adhesive.
Marsh gumplant grows in wet soils along with bulrush and other marsh plants. It produces many bright yellow flowers per bush from spring to fall.

Marsh gumplant is also a very important plant in restoration work and for providing protection and habitat for the California Clapper Rail.

MIMULUS bifidus and hybrids

Monkey flower.

Considered by many to be our most lovely shrubby Monkey Flower. The large flowers are an exquisite, pale apricot color, and occur in spring and summer. The leaves are narrow and glossy green. The Apricot Monkeyflower must have good drainage and in full or filtered sun, it is a fine drought tolerant garden plant. It is somewhat lower growing than other species, and is found in the Sierra foothills as well as the Pinnacles, and the Santa Lucia's.

OENOTHERA elata

Hooker's Evening Primrose.

Oenothera elata is a plant of the genus Oenothera known by the common name Hooker's evening primrose. It is native to much of western and central North America.

The hookeri subspecies of Oenothera elata, native to California, can reach about 6 feet in height. The shade of its flowers varies from yellow to orange.

The Zuni people apply a poultice of the powdered flower of the hookeri subspecies and saliva at night to swellings.

ROMNEYA coulteri

Coulter's Matilja Poppy, Californian Tree Poppy. Shrub

Romneya coulteri is native to southern California and Baja California and grows in dry canyons in chaparral and coastal sage scrub plant communities, sometimes in areas recently burned. It is a popular ornamental plant, kept for its large, showy flowers.

The specific epithet commemorates Thomas Coulter, an Irish botanist and explorer.

While beautiful, this plant often grows aggressively once planted. It spreads by underground rhizomes and can pop up several feet away from the original plant.

It was nominated for the honor of California state flower in 1890, but the California poppy won the title in a landslide.

VIOLA adunca

Violet, Hookedspur Violet, Early Blue Violet, Sand Violet and Western Dog Violet.

Viola adunca is native to North America, including the western half of the United States to New England northward throughout Canada.

This is a hairy, compact plant growing from a small rhizome system. There are several varieties of V. adunca; a white-petaled form has been noted in Yosemite National Park.

VERBENA lilacina ‘DeLaMina'

Purple Cedros Island Verbena. Evergreen Subshrub

Verbena lilacina 'De La Mina' has a mounding habit to 18 to 24 inches tall by 2 to 3 feet wide with mid-green delicately dissected foliage and clusters of sweetly fragrant dark purple, star-shaped flowers with purple stamens. This plant can bloom most of the year with a peak in spring and summer.

Plant in full to part sun. It has low water needs and can go extended periods without any water but a monthly irrigation cycle from late spring through the first rains of fall keeps this plant looking lush with continuous blooming.

This great plant works well as a container specimen or planted in dry borders mixed with other mediterranean climate plants and is great for attracting bees and butterflies to the garden.

Collected by Carol Bornstein, then Director of Horticulture at the Santa Barbara Botanic Garden, in the Canyon de la Mina on Cedros Island, an island off the west coast of Baja California. Although not native to California proper, the northern Pacific Ocean islands off Baja California have a mediterranean climate and are considered to be part of the California floristic province and so plants of this area are often treated as "California Natives".

The name for the genus comes from the Latin word for sacred boughs of plants made up of olive, myrtle and other plants (possibly Verbena) and the specific epithet is Latin meaning "lilac in color" in reference to the typical flower color of the species.

BED 9 GRASSES

CALAMOGROSTIS foliosa

Reedgrass. Perennial Grass

It is endemic to northern California, where it grows in the forests and scrub on the coastline. This perennial grass produces a tuft of stems 30 to 60 centimeters tall. The leaves are mostly located about the base of the stems. The inflorescence is a dense, narrow sheaf of spikelets up to 12 centimeters long. The fruit of each spikelet is tipped with a bent awn.

CAREX tumulicola

Splitlawn Sedge, Foothill Sedge, Berkeley Sedge.

Carex tumulicola is found in western North America, from British Columbia to California. It has a height and width of 2 feet and is slowly spreading. It is found in meadows and open woodlands, below 3,900 ft.

Plants grown in the nursery trade are often mislabeled with botanical and common names of similar appearing Carex spp. - while the subtle distinctions are currently [2010] reclarified-assigned by botanists. For example, one considered the species to be closely related to Carex hookeriana, and others to Carex pansa.

FESTUCA idahoensis ‘Siskiyou Blue'

Siskiyou Blue Fescue.

Festuca 'Siskiyou Blue' is a long living cool season bunch grass with tight clumps of narrow chalky-blue foliage 12 to 18 inches tall by slightly wider with flowers stalks rising straight up about 6 inches above the foliage in late spring into early summer.

Plant in full sun to light shade in most regular to barren well-drained soils with regular, occasional to infrequent irrigation. Resistant to deer predation.

It was introduced by the Berkeley Botanic Garden where it was a chance seedling selection. It was initially thought to be a Festuca idahoensis but the current thought is that it is a hybrid between the native Festuca idahoensis and a European Festuca glauca (F. ovina glauca, Hort.). Though technically no longer a "native plant" it works well with native and other mediterranean climate plants and is non-invasive.

FESTUCA californica ‘Olympali'

California Fescue. Perennial Evergreen Grass

California fescue grows 2-4′ tall and 2-3′ wide. An easy to grow plant, it is an excellent choice as a groundcover for slopes among oaks, California bays, or pines.

A truly beautiful, mid-sized bunch grass. The graceful, fountain-like, blue-green foliage grows 2' tall. The showy flower stalks rise another 2' above the foliage. Cut back annually to renovate and groom plants with a stiff rakes to remove old foliage and freshen appearance.

Drought tolerant, though it looks better with some Summer water. * * 'Olympali' may be 'Olompali' from the state park in Marin County.

FESTUCA californica

California Fescue, Bunchgrass.

California fescue is a beautiful native bunchgrass often seen cascading down oak studded slopes. Blue-green blades 1 1/2 ft. tall with graceful flower stalks rising another 2 ft. above the foliage. A natural for under native oaks where they receive light shade and little summer water. They are drought tolerant once established. Deer resistant too.

Blooms Spring and Summer. A California native, survives on rain water once established.

Additional Information:
Image above is Festuca californica on a hillside at Annadel State Park in August.

KOELERIA macrantha

Junegrass, Hair-grass.

Koeleria macrantha is native to much of North America, from Alaska to California, from northern Mexico to the Eastern United States. It occurs in a large number of habitat types, especially prairie.

Koeleria macrantha is a short, tuft-forming perennial bunchgrass, reaching heights from 7.9–27.6 in. It is a good forage for many types of grazing animals. It is classified as a severe allergen in humans with grass allergy.

Koeleria is used as an exceptionally low-maintenance lawn and turf grass. It is not suitable for high-traffic use due to its slow growth rate. It is often used for golf course roughs.

MUHLENBERGIA rigens

Deergrass. Perennial.

Muhlenbergia rigens is found in sandy or well drained soils below 7,000 feet in elevation in the Southwestern United States and parts of Mexico.

The native range of the grass extends north into Shasta County, California, and south into New Mexico, Texas and Mexico. There it inhabits a wide range of ecotypes including grassland, riparian, chaparral, mixed conifer, and oak woodland communities. Deergrass can grow in areas with periodic flooding, but cannot tolerate standing water and poorly drained soils. It prefers full sun but is shade-tolerant.

It has also been used for erosion prevention and streambank stabilization because of extensive root systems. Restoration efforts currently use deergrass to displace exotic invasive annuals that dominate current grassland ecosystems as well as remediate overtilled and eroded agricultural land where they anchor loose soils and return lost organic matter. Phytoremediative studies have also been conducted to test deergrass's ability to remove chemicals from agricultural runoff. Deergrass's dense stands and extensive roots act as a biofilter effective for herbicide, pesticide and particulate removal and breakdown.

Among the Zuni people. the grass is attached to the sticks of plume offerings to anthropic gods.

Muhlenbergia rigens, Deergrass, can be established in late spring and early summer by broadcast seeding with irrigation. Container planting is a highly effective way of establishing Deergrass. The seed can be sown in flats in May and transplanted in the fall of the same year. Burning or mowing can be used every few years to reduce accumulated dead matter.

Because Muhlenbergia rigens uses C4 carbon fixation, it gains an advantage in conditions of drought and high temperature. This characteristic, along with its attractiveness, has gained the plant recent attention as an ornamental in xeriscapes in yards and parks. Studies have also demonstrated a high tolerance to salt suggesting possible irrigation using low quality reclaimed waste-water sources at very low cost.

The tall grass is an overwintering host for many species of Lepidoptera and ladybug, which along with deergrass seed, provides food for many different bird species.

Native American tribes used its long seedstalks as the principal material in coiled baskets. Deergrass underwent an early form of cultivation by many California tribes who regularly burned areas to maintain stands of deergrass, and induce the production of long straight stalks for use in basketry. Each basket required over 3000 stalks, driving the need for cultivation. It is believed that much of deergrass's current distribution is due to propagation by Native Americans.

NASSELLA lepida

Foothill Needlegrass, Foothills nassella, Foothill stipa, Small-flowered Stipa, Small-Flowered Needlegrass, Smallflower Tussockgrass. Perennial

Nassella lepida (syn. Stipa lepida) is native to California in the United States, where it occurs as far north as Humboldt County, and its range extends into Baja California.

This grass grows in chaparral and grassland habitat. It can also be found in coastal sage scrub and coastal prairie.

This species and several others were recently transferred from genus Stipa into Nassella, mainly on the basis of their "strongly convolute lemmas". Genetic evidence supports the transfer.

This species may hybridize with Nassella pulchra.

SISYRINCHIUM bellum

Western blue-eyed grass, Californian blue-eyed grass. Perennial

Sisyrinchium bellum is the common blue-eyed grass of California and Oregon in and west of the Sierra Nevada, its range extending south into Baja California. In parts of its range, western blue-eyed grass has previously been classified as Sisyrinchium eastwoodiae, S. greenei and S. hesperium, but these names are now considered synonyms.

Sisyrinchium bellum grows as a perennial plant in open places where there is some moisture, particularly grassy areas, though it can also be found in woodlands and at altitudes up to 7,900 ft. Like other species of blue-eyed grasses that are locally dominant, it is generally known simply as "blue-eyed grass" within its natural range.

It flowers from March to July. Dried in air, its seeds weigh between 1 and 4 mg. After flowering, it dies to the ground and is dormant over the summer.

Sisyrinchium bellum prefers some moisture and good drainage, but will tolerate summer dryness. It can be propagated by seed, and it self-sows. It can also be propagated by division of its rhizomes, and the flower stems can be rooted. It is moderately hardy and will tolerate temperatures down to 20 °F.

The Ohlone used an infusion of the roots and leaves as a cure for indigestion and stomach pain, and similar uses are recorded from other Native American peoples.

SOLIDAGO californica

California Goldenrod.

Solidago californica is native to western North America from Oregon through California to Baja California, where it grows in many types of habitats, including oak woodlands, valley grassland, chaparral, and sometimes disturbed areas.

Solidago californica is a rhizomatous perennial herb producing a hairy stem up to 4.9 ft tall. The inflorescence is a narrow, often one-sided series or cluster of many flower heads. Each flower head contains many yellow disc florets and up to 11 narrow yellow ray florets which measure up to half a centimeter long.

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SALVIA clevelandii ‘Allen Chickering'

Sage. Shrub

Salvia 'Allen Chickering' is a dense shrub that grows to 5 feet tall with an equal or greater spread. Leaves are gray-green and approximately 1 inch long. The 2 foot long flower spikes of deep lavender flowers form on a tier of whorls in late spring and summer.

For its best appearance it requires full sun, well-draining soil and little summer watering. Once established it requires even less watering. This Salvia is frost hardy to about 15 degrees F. As with other native sages to keep a dense and more attractive plant cut back in the winter by about a third or more when young - once mature with woody stems, only tip prune.

Hybrid of S.clevelandii x S.leucophylla introduced by Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden.

Named for Allen Chickering (1907-1996) who lived in Woodside, CA for many years and was a Western history and ecology enthusiast. A descendent of a California pioneer family, Mr. Chickering possessed a wide range of knowledge of Western lore and wildflowers. He supported many environmental causes including Filoli in Woodside,the Strybing Arboretum and the California Academy of Sciences in Golden Gate Park, the Nature Conservancy, Save the Redwoods League and the San Mateo Historical Society.

Mr. Chickering's wife, Carol, was a member of the Woodside-Atherton Garden Club and in 1965 was awarded the Garden Club of America's Eloise Payne Luquer Medal: "Conservationist, botanist, artist and forceful worker, whose beautifully accurate watercolors have illustrated important publications."

SALVIA clevelandii 'Winnifred Gilman'

Sage, California Blue Sage.

Salvia clevelandii 'Winnifred Gilman' grows to 3 feet tall and wide with aromatic gray-green foliage and profuse golf ball-shaped clusters of electric blue-purple flowers. The flowers arise from dark ruby red calyces that form in whorls along the top foot of each reddish stem tip - flowering commences in late spring or early summer and continues for about a month.

Plant in full sun in a well-drained soil. This native chaparral plant will survive on very little to no supplemental irrigation but plants are more attractive if given an occasional deep watering, so long as the soil drains well. Hardy to at least 15 F. To keep a dense and more attractive plant, cut back in the winter by about a third or more when young - once mature with woody stems, only tip prune.

The foliage of Blue Sage has a very nice fragrance that has been described as "clean, like a sweet desert morning" and the flowers to emit a pleasant aroma - both fresh and dry calyces are useful in flower arrangements. Salvia clevelandii 'Winnifred Gilman' is considered to be a true selection of blue sage. The similar sages such as 'Allen Chickering' and 'Whirly Blue', which both are more open, taller and have paler blue flowers are considered to be Salvia clevelandii hybrids. Salvia clevelandii 'Winnifred Gilman' was originally released without collection data at a Strybing Arboretum (now the San Francisco Botanic Garden) plant sale in 1964, named for one of their volunteer propagators. It was later noted growing in a Berkeley, CA garden by Sherrie Althouse and Phil Van Soelen of California Flora Nursery and was introduced into the California nursery trade by them in 1990. We have grown this great plant since 1993 and until 2007 misspelled Winnifred's name as "Winifred". Our thanks to Betsy Clebsch for correcting this error, though we note that this misspelling seems to now be widely used by many nurseries now growing this plant - our apologies to Winnie!

SALVIA clevelandii ‘Whirly Blue'

Sage.

Salvia clevelandii ‘Whirly Blue' full sun drought tolerant
Native to southern California's chaparral country and distinctive amongst the shrubby sages for its large deeper colored blossoms, you can usually smell this extremely long blooming, drought tolerant cultivar before it comes into view. The pleasantly sweet and woody aroma is a grace note to its handsome habit. Evergreen, narrow linear leaves have a pewter green tone, punctuated by a springtime flash of bright green stems. Excellent in dried arrangements, ‘Whirly Blue's rich violet flower whorls, enhanced with dusky mulberry-colored calyxes, are favored by hummingbirds, bees and butterflies. Prune regularly to ensure an attractive appearance.

Blooms June – October.

Size: 4-1/2' high x 4'–5' wide; hardy to zone 8.

SALVIA clevelandii ‘Pozo Blue'

Sage. Perennial

Salvia 'Pozo Blue' is very drought tolerant three foot green-gray perennial. A hybrid of Salvia clevelandii and Salvia leucophylla. It is named for the small, stage coach stop town of Pozo near the Santa Margarita Nursery. Its flowering period is about 6 weeks with violet-blue flowers. Foliage is very fragrant like Musk Sage (Salvia clevelandii).

Salvia 'Pozo Blue' survives and looks good on rainfall from 7"-35". Summer watering has not been a problem, but may shorten the plants life. Salvia 'Pozo Blue' has been stable in a heavy clay and beach sand. Planted in a sandy garden in Los Osos where the salt spray burned the foliage off of most of the other plants, it is lovely and shows no sign of burn. We have been told it is better looking than Salvia 'Allen Chickering' in form and foliage. Flowers are similar.

This is THE NATIVE BUTTERFLY BUSH. If you have the room for a butterfly hedge, go for it. Quail LOVE this plant. If you dead head the seed heads off and throw them onto the ground, the quail will be there for a day or two eating seeds.

Plant the sages about four foot apart for almost perfect fill-in. Mix a few Salvia brandegei, Salvia 'Celestial Blue' or Salvia clevelandii 'Alpine' for a longer flowering period, or just blast the neighborhood with fragrance and color with miles of 'Pozo Blue'.

This sage has also done well in the Anza Borrego Desert area, Bakersfield, Los Angeles, San Diego, San Francisco and most years, Portland, Oregon.

A fairly cold tolerant sage, to 5F degree with little or no damage (but can't sustain days of continual cold below 32F). This sage froze to the ground at 0.

SALVIA apiana

White Sage, Bee Sage, Sacred Sage. Evergreen Shrub

Salvia apiana is native to the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico, found mainly in the coastal sage scrub habitat of Southern California and Baja California, on the western edges of the Mojave and Sonoran deserts.

S. apiana is a shrub that reaches 4.3 to 4.9 ft tall and its whitish evergreen leaves have oils and resins that release a strong aroma when rubbed. The flowers are very attractive to bees, which is described by the specific epithet, apiana. Several 3.3 to 4.3 ft flower stalks, sometimes pinkish colored, grow above the foliage in the spring. Flowers are white to pale lavender.

Names for white sage in local Native American languages include qaashil (Luiseño), shlhtaay or pilhtaay (Kumeyaay), kasiile (Tongva), we'wey (Chumash), qas'ily (Cahuilla), shaltai (Paipai), and lhtaay (Cochimí).[citation needed]

White sage is a common plant that requires well-drained dry soil, full sun, and little water. The plant occurs on dry slopes in coastal sage scrub, chaparral, and yellow-pine forests of Southern California to Baja California at less than 4,900 ft elevation.

S. apiana is widely used by Native American groups on the Pacific coast of the United States. The seed was a main ingredient of pinole, a staple food. The Cahuilla harvested large quantities of the seed that was mixed with wheat flour and sugar for gruel or biscuits. The leaves and stems were eaten by the Chumash and other tribes. Several tribes used the seed for removing foreign objects from the eye, similar to the way that Clary sage seeds were used in Europe. A tea from the roots was used by the Cahuilla women for healing and strength after childbirth. The leaves are also burnt by many native American tribes, with the smoke used in different purification rituals.

S. apiana prefers a sunny location, well draining soil, and good air circulation. It easily hybridizes with other Salvia species, particularly Salvia leucophylla and Salvia clevelandii.[1]

Bumblebees, hawk moths, and wasps pollinate white sage, and hummingbirds also appear to like the plant.

SALVIA spathacea

Pitcher Sage, Hummingbird Sage. Evergreen Perennial

Salvia spathacea is native to southern and central California. This fruity scented sage blooms in March to May with typically dark rose-lilac colored flowers. It is cultivated in gardens for its attractive flowering spikes and pleasant scent.

The pitcher sage is found in the California coast ranges from the Sacramento Valley south to the San Diego area. It is a common species that grows on open or shady slopes in moist oak woodland, chaparral, and coastal sage scrub not far from the Pacific Ocean.

S. spathacea is an evergreen perennial with flowering stems growing from a woody base. When not flowering plants grow less than 20 in. tall, forming clumps of sprawling foliage. It spreads by rhizomes and can form colonies up to 51 in. in diameter. Like many species in the mint family it has very pronounced square stems, and the entire plant is covered with wavy glandular hairs.

Its bright green leaves are highly aromatic when crushed or touched. The flowers are produced in clustered whorled inflorescences which can be ruby red to dark maroon or brown. The fruits are 4 nutlets, dark brown to black in color.

Salvia spathacea is easy to grow in the garden, and is a very useful groundcover for dry shade under oaks. Supplemental water can help encourage a longer flowering season, but a late summer rest from watering is desirable. As the alternative common name suggests, it is used by feeding hummingbirds and will attract them to the garden. Deer and gophers generally leave this strongly aromatic plant alone.

Several cultivars exist although some selections are stronger than others. One showy cultivar is "Confetti," which has both yellow and pink flowers on the same plant. The more robust cultivars include "Powerline Pink," with magenta to crimson flowers, which will grow in hot sun, even inland, and "Avis Keedy," which has light yellow flowers.

S. spathacea has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.

SALVIA mellifera 'Terra Seca'

Black Sage.

Here is an interesting form of the normally upright, native black sage. 'Terra Seca' grows to about 2 1/2 ft. tall and 5 ft. wide. Perfect for a dry sunny bank where it will cover the ground densely and thickly. It will spill over a wall beautifully. The flowers are pale lavender. Deer and drought resistant. This species attracts bees and hummingbirds.

LEPECHINIA calycina

Pitcher Sage, Woodbalm. Shrub

Lepechinia calycina is a species of flowering plant in the mint family and is endemic to California, where it is a common plant in several different habitat types, including the chaparral plant community.

Lepechinia calycina is an aromatic shrub with parts of its bark covered in long hairs, some of which have resin glands in them. The leaves are lance-shaped to roughly oval and are sometimes toothed along the edges.

The shrub flowers in loose raceme inflorescences. Each flower is encased in a cuplike calyx of sepals which are green when new and age to reddish purple. The somewhat cylindrical corolla of the flower is white to light lavender and is rolled back at the tip into four small lips and one longer lip. The tiny fruit develops within the sepal cup after the flower falls. The fruit is rounded, dark in color, and slightly hairy.

The Miwok, a Native American group of California, used an extract of the leaves of this plant to treat fever and headache.

ASTER chilensis

Pacific Aster, California Aster. Perennial Herb.

Symphyotrichum chilense (formerly Aster chilensis) is a species of aster and is native to the West Coast of North America from British Columbia to Southern California and the Channel Islands. It grows in many types of habitats, especially along the coast and in the coastal mountain ranges. Despite its Latin name, it does not occur in Chile.

Symphyotrichum chilense is a rhizomatous perennial herb growing to heights between 40 centimeters and one meter. The hairy leaves are narrowly oval-shaped, pointed, and sometimes finely serrated along the edges.

The inflorescence holds aster flower heads with centers of yellow disc florets and fringes of many narrow light purple ray florets. The fruit is a rounded, hairy achene with a pappus.

ERIOPHYLLUM lanatum

Common Woolly Sunflower, Oregon Sunshine.

Eriophyllum lanatum is a widespread, herbaceous dicot of the sunflower family (Asteraceae).

Lewis and Clark saw Eriophyllums growing above their camp on the Clearwater near present day Kamiah, Idaho. They gathered two specimens (the plant was then unknown to science) on June 6, 1806.

It is native to western North America, commonly growing in many dry, open places below 10,000 ft, but it also grows on rocky slopes and bluffs. It is most common in California, but grows as far north as Vancouver, Canada.

This perennial plant grows from 1 to 2 feet in height. The Woolly Sunflower grows in well-branched clumps. Both stems and leaves may be covered with a woolly gray hair, but some plants lack this hair. The hairs conserve water by reflecting heat and reducing air movement across the leaf's surface. The hairs impart a dusty gray color to the plant.

Flowers are yellow and composite, looking much like true sunflowers, and sometimes grow to 2 inches wide. Both the ray and disk flowers are yellow, with one flower head on each flowering stalk.

It blooms from May to August, and prefers full sun and well-drained soil. A dozen or so varieties of this plant are recognized.

ERIOPHYLLUM staechadifolium

Seaside Woolly Sunflower.

Eriophyllum stoechadifolium (also, E. staechadifolium) is a flowering plant in the daisy family and is native to the coastline of Oregon and California as far south as the Channel Islands.

This is a plant of the beaches, dunes, and coastal scrub. It is variable in size, its height depending in part on its exposure to harsh coastal wind and saline spray. It may reach anywhere from 30 centimeters to 1.5 meters tall, and may be small and clumpy or quite sprawling. The leaves are up to seven centimeters long and are sometimes lobed. Each inflorescence holds several tightly packed flower heads in shades of golden yellow with centers full of disc florets and usually a fringe of small ray florets each a few millimeters long.

LEYMUS ‘Canyon Prince'

Canyon Prince Wild Rye. Evergreen Grass

Leymus condensatus 'Canyon Prince' is a medium-sized powdery gray-blue rhizomatous evergreen grass (new foliage emerges green) grows 2-3 feet tall in a drier location, larger, up to 5 feet tall, if given regular watering.

The erect flower stalks rise 1-2 feet above the foliage in late summer and are topped with tightly congested clusters of spikes of wheat-colored flowers.

Plant in full sun to light shade but color is best in the sun. It is drought resistant but looks better with occasional irrigation along the coast and needs it in inland and desert gardens. This grass has proven hardy to below 10 degrees F and it spreads by short rhizomes and with time can colonize large areas, if so desired and not contained, but its growth can be restricted by selective removal of rhizomes along the edge of the planting or by using a physical barrier (paving or plastic root barrier).

Avoid over irrigating as it can lose its typically upright form and lie flat as though sat on. Cut this plant back once a year in late spring to late summer to freshen it up but don't be surprised that the newly emerging shoots are bright green; they will rapidly turn blue-gray again as they mature. Great as an accent plant, in a container, or towards the back of the perennial border, within a meadow planting or at the base of a slope.

This grass is a selection made by Santa Barbara Botanic Garden horticulturist Dara Emery from plants collected in 1968 by Ralph Philbrick, then director of the Santa Barbara Botanic Garden, on Prince Island, a small rocky islet at the entrance to Cuyler Harbor on the north side of San Miguel Island in the Santa Barbara Channel Islands. There is speculation in Rick Darke's Encyclopedia of Grasses that this plant might be a natural hybrid between Leymus mollis and Leymus condensatus because this plant exhibits traits intermediary between these species, though Leymus mollis is not known to be naturally growing on San Miguel Island. A taller form of Leymus condensatus is called 'Gaviota Gray'

CEANOTHUS thyrsiflorus ‘Tuxedo

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CALAMAGROSTIS foliosa

Leafy Reedgrass

Calamagrostis foliosa is endemic to northern California, where it grows in the forests and scrub on the coastline. This perennial grass produces a tuft of stems 30 to 60 centimeters tall. The leaves are mostly located about the base of the stems. The inflorescence is a dense, narrow sheaf of spikelets up to 12 centimeters long. The fruit of each spikelet is tipped with a bent awn.

FREMONTODENDRON ssp. decumbens 'Ken Taylor'

Flannel Bush. Evergreen Shrub

Fremontodendron 'Ken Taylor' is a hybrid created by Ken Taylor at his native plant nursery and garden in Aromas, CA. It blooms golden flowers with a darker orange outside petals in the spring and summer and grows to only 5 feet tall and spreads to at least 8 feet. A great plant for slopes or other well-drained sites. Full sun, no irrigation water needed once established. It is thought to be an F2 hybrid of F. californica ssp. decumbens and F. 'Californica Glory'.

MALOCOTHAMNUS fremontii

Frémont's bushmallow. Shrub

Malacothamnus fremontii is a species of flowering plant in the mallow family named after John C. Frémont.

Malacothamnus fremontii is endemic to California, where it has a scattered distribution in various regions of the state. It is found growing in chaparral and woodlands in several mountain ranges and their foothills, and higher altitude forests on Mojave Desert sky islands.
Malacothamnus fremontii is a stiff, erect shrub with a branching stem reaching (1.6–6.6 ft in height. It is coated densely in white fibers, appearing feltlike. The hairy oval or rounded lobed leaves are several centimeters long.

The inflorescence is an elongated cluster of many pale purple flowers with hairy petals each up to a centimeter long.

CHILOPSIS linearis ‘Purple Splendor'

Desert Willow. Shrub/Small tree.

Chilopsis linearis 'Purple Splendor' grows 10'h x 10'w, needs full sun and attracts hummingbirds.

This native's green leaves and large flowers belie its desert origin. Native to washes and streambeds in the arid Southwest, this fast growing shrub or small tree has a willow-like form at maturity, with contorted older branches, and pendant new growth. Beautiful large purple flowers appear in summer on this selection.

LINUM lewisii

Lewis Flax, Blue Flax, Prairie Flax. Perennial

Linum lewisii (Linum perenne var. lewisii) is native to western North America from Alaska south to Baja California, and from the Pacific Coast east to the Mississippi River. It grows on ridges and dry slopes, from sea level in the north up to 3000 m altitude in the south of the species' range.

It is a slender herbaceous plant growing to 90 cm tall, with spirally arranged narrow lanceolate leaves 1–2 cm long. The flowers are pale blue or lavender to white, 1.5–3 cm diameter, with five petals.

Linum lewisii is extremely durable, even aggressive, in favorable conditions, successfully seeding even into established lawns.

DESCHAMPSIA cespitosa

Tufted Hairgrass, Tussock Grass.

Deschampsia cespitosa is a perennial tufted plant in the grass family Poaceae. Distribution of this Deschampsia grass species is widespread including the eastern and western coasts of North America, parts of South America, Eurasia and Australia.

It can be found on all types of grassland, although it prefers poorly drained soil. It forms a major component of the British NVC community MG9 - Holcus lanatus to Deschampsia cespitosa mesotrophic grasslands. It can exist up to altitudes of 4000 ft.

A distinguishing feature is the upper surface of the leaf blade which feels rough and can cut in one direction, but is smooth in the opposite direction. The upper side of the leaves are deeply grooved, and are dark green.

It can grow to 4.5 feet tall, and has a long, narrow, pointed ligule.

It flowers from June until August.

ARCTOPHYLOS ‘John Dourley'

Manzanita. Shrub

Arctostaphylos 'John Dourley' is a mounding habit to 2-3 feet tall by up to 6 (perhaps to 10) feet wide. There seems to be discrepancies on the size description for this plant, perhaps due to climatic or cultural conditions, as Las Pilitas Nursery notes it growing much smaller in their hotter and drier conditions. New growth in spring has foliage that is an attractive orange-red that fades to gray-green by mid-summer. Clusters of pink flowers are abundant over a long blooming season followed by berries that are purple-red. A dependable ground cover selection with year-round interest. Hardy to 5 F. Named for John Dourley, the former Superintendent of Horticulture at Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden by Mike Evans of Tree of Life Nursery. It was a volunteer seedling found by Dourley in an area of hybrid Manzanitas at the Rancho Santa Ana garden and is of unknown parentage, though some speculate it to be a hybrid between Arctostaphylos pajaroensis and A. bakeri.

The name Arctostaphylos was given to the genus by the French (of Scottish descent) naturalist Michel Adanson (1707-1778), who first named the circumboreal Arctostaphylos uva-ursi for plants found in Europe. The name comes from the Greek words 'arktos' meaning "bear" and 'staphyle' meaning "grapes" in reference to bears eating the fruit and the common name Bearberry also references this fact.

MUHLENBERGIA rigens

Deergrass.

Muhlenbergia rigens is a warm season perennial bunchgrass found in sandy or well drained soils below 7,000 feet in elevation in the Southwestern United States and parts of Mexico.

The plant Muhlenbergia rigens is characterized by dense, tufted basal foliage consisting of narrow pointed leaves that reach lengths of about 3 feet and range in color from light silver-green to purple. The spikelike stems are less than half an inch wide and 3–4 feetin length. During bloom, the numerous flowered panicles often reach heights of five feet. Deergrass is characteristic of tallgrass prairie of much of the Western United States.

The native range of the grass extends north into Shasta County, California, and south into New Mexico, Texas and Mexico. There it inhabits a wide range of ecotypes including grassland, riparian, chaparral, mixed conifer, and oak woodland communities. Deergrass can grow in areas with periodic flooding, but cannot tolerate standing water and poorly drained soils. It prefers full sun but is shade-tolerant.

The young shoots are browsed by a variety of animals, but with age the plant becomes unpalatable and is useful in an exposed garden setting for its deer resistance. It has also been used for erosion prevention and streambank stabilization because of extensive root systems. Restoration efforts currently use deergrass to displace exotic invasive annuals that dominate current grassland ecosystems as well as remediate overtilled and eroded agricultural land where they anchor loose soils and return lost organic matter. Phytoremediative studies have also been conducted to test deergrass's ability to remove chemicals from agricultural runoff. Deergrass's dense stands and extensive roots act as a biofilter effective for herbicide, pesticide and particulate removal and breakdown.

Among the Zuni people. the grass is attached to the sticks of plume offerings to anthropic gods.

Muhlenbergia rigens, Deergrass, can be established in late spring and early summer by broadcast seeding with irrigation. For best results, 50 seeds per square foot are planted then lightly incorporated just below the soil surface with a culti-packer. Establishment is most successful when steps are taken to mitigate weed growth. Burning, discing and reduced fertilization schemes to reduce the weed seed bank are recommended.

Container planting is a highly effective way of establishing Deergrass. The seed can be sown in flats in May and transplanted in the fall of the same year. In California, except in areas of heavy frost, Muhlenbegia rigens can be successfully planted out in winter and spring to take advantage of seasonal rainfall. Stand preparation should be the same as when broadcast-seeded. During transplant, plants should be spaced with a minimum of two feet between them. After establishment little management is required. Irrigation is unnecessary in normal rainfall years and fertilization is not recommended as it may increase weed competition. Burning or mowing can be used every few years to reduce accumulated dead matter.

Because Muhlenbergia rigens uses C4 carbon fixation, it gains an advantage in conditions of drought and high temperature. This characteristic, along with its attractiveness, has gained the plant recent attention as an ornamental in xeriscapes in yards and parks. Studies have also demonstrated a high tolerance to salt suggesting possible irrigation using low quality reclaimed waste-water sources at very low cost.

Muhlenbergia rigens is a cover for mule deer during fawning periods and studies have equated reduced deer populations with overgrazed deergrass stands in and near cattle pasture. Young shoots and leaves are grazed by deer, horses and cattle. The tall grass is an overwintering host for many species of Lepidoptera and ladybug, which along with deergrass seed, provides food for many different bird species.

Deergrass was important to many Native American tribes who used its long seedstalks as the principal material in coiled baskets. Deergrass underwent an early form of cultivation by many California tribes who regularly burned areas to maintain stands of deergrass, and induce the production of long straight stalks for use in basketry. Each basket required over 3000 stalks, driving the need for cultivation[8] It is believed that much of deergrass's current distribution is due to propagation by Native Americans.

EPILOBIUM 'Select Mattole'

California Fuschsia.

Epilobium septentrionalis 'Select Mattole' grows 1'h x 2'w and can grow in Sun to Part Shade. Deer resistant, it attracts hummingbirds.

Ray Collett and Brett Hall selected this plant from a rock outcrop along the Mattole River in Humboldt County. Dense, silvery leaves offset tubular scarlet late summer blooms beautifully. A favorite of hummingbirds. In your garden give it sun and occasional water. Beautiful amid grasses or along a wall where it can spill down. As with all California Fuchsias, it is winter dormant and should be cut back hard for a neat appearance the following year.

EPILOBIUM 'El Tigre'

Caifornia Fuschia. Evergreen Perennial.

Epilobium (Zauschneria) canum 'El Tigre' grows 6-10 inches high, 4+ feet wide. It grows well on banks and flowers summer through fall. Requires full sun exposure, well drained soil and moderate to little watering

Hardy to 15 degrees F. or less
Selected on El Tigre Peak on Santa Cruz Island, this selection is low and matting, with very narrow grey-green leaves. Scarlet flowers appear summer through November. Attracts hummingbirds. Prune low in winter.

BED 12

LITHOCARPUS densiflorus

Tanoak, Tanbark Oak. Evergreen tree

Notholithocarpus densiflorus is native to the western United States, in California as far south as the Transverse Ranges, north to southwest Oregon, and east in the Sierra Nevada. It can reach 130 ft tall in the California Coast Ranges, and can have a trunk diameter of (24–75 in).

Tanbark-oak was recently moved into a new genus, Notholithocarpus (from Lithocarpus), based on multiple lines of evidence. It is most closely related to the north temperate oaks, Quercus, and not as closely related to the Asian tropical stone oaks, Lithocarpus (where is was previously placed), but instead is an example of convergent morphological evolution.

The Notholithocarpus (prev. Lithocarpus) densiflorus leaves are alternate with toothed margins and a hard, leathery texture, and persist for three to four years. At first they are covered in dense orange-brown scurfy hairs on both sides, but those on the upper surface soon wear off, those on the under surface persisting longer but eventually wearing off too.

The seed is a nut is 0.79–1.18 in long and very similar to an oak acorn, but with a very hard, woody nut shell more like a hazel nut. The nuts are produced in clusters of a few together on a single stem. The nut kernel is very bitter, and is inedible for people without extensive leaching, although squirrels eat them.

Tanoak is one of the species most seriously affected by "sudden oak death" (Phytophthora ramorum), with high mortality reported over much of the species' range.

Some California Native Americans prefer this nut to those of many Quercus acorns because it stores well due to the comparatively high tannin content. The Concow tribe call the nut hä'-hä (Konkow language). The Hupa people use the acorns to make meal, from which they would make mush, bread, biscuits, pancakes, and cakes. They also roast the acorns and eat them. Roasted, the seeds can be used as a coffee substitute.

The name tanoak refers to its tannin-rich bark, a type of tanbark, used in the past for tanning leather before the use of modern synthetic tannins. By 1907 the use of tanoak for tannin was subsiding due to the scarcity of large tanoak trees. There weren't enough trees around for a worthwhile economic return. By the early 1960s there were only a few natural tannin operations left in California. The industry was beginning to switch to a synthetic alternative. A mulch made from the leaves of the plant can repel grubs and slugs.

Tanoak tannin has been used as an astringent.

Currently the largest known tanoak specimen is on private timberland near the town of Ophir, Oregon. It has a circumference of 26 feet, is about 8.25 feet in diameter at breast height, and is 121 feet tall with an average crown spread of 56 feet.

CORYLUS cornuta californica

Beaked Hazel. Deciduous shrub

Corylus cornuta is found in most of North America, from southern Canada south to Georgia and California. It grows in dry woodlands and forest edges and can reach 13–26 ft tall with stems 3.9–9.8 in. thick with smooth gray bark. The leaves are rounded oval, coarsely double-toothed, with hairy undersides. The flowers are catkins that form in the fall and pollinate in the following spring.

Corylus cornuta is named from its fruit, which is a nut enclosed in a husk with a tubular extension 0.79–1.57 in long that resembles a beak. Tiny filaments protrude from the husk and may stick into, and irritate, skin that contacts them. The spherical nuts, which are surrounded by a hard shell, are edible.

There are two varieties:

Corylus cornuta var. cornuta – Eastern Beaked Hazel. Small shrub, 4 to 6 m tall;[1] 'beak' longer, 3 cm or more.

Corylus cornuta var. californica – Western Beaked Hazel or California Hazelnut. Large shrub, 4 to 15 m tall;[1] 'beak' shorter, usually less than 3 cm. The Concow tribe called this variety gōm'-he''-ni (Konkow language).

The seeds are dispersed by jays and rodents such as red squirrels and least chipmunks. Although C. cornuta is somewhat shade tolerant, it more common in open forests than denser ones. Fire kills the above-ground portion of the shrub, but it resprouts fairly readily after fire, and in fact American Indians in California and Oregon used fire to encourage hazelnut growth, as they used hazelnuts for food, baskets, medicine, and other purposes.

CARPENTERIA californica

Bush Anemone. Evergreen shrub

Carpenteria californica is an evergreen shrub, 6' by 3' in the garden, 8 ft. X 12 ft. with a 6-12 inch trunk in the wild. Carpenteria is native to the foothills of Fresno County, where it grows along the edges of seasonal creeks. Tolerates sun to shade. Do not over feed, will grow rank with too much care. It is refined with moderate neglect but needs some water if your rainfall is less than 20 inches per year.

Carpenteria has proven cold tolerant to 10 degrees F.; no problem. The bark burned off of it at 2 degrees F.

Bush Anemone has been in cultivation since 1875. The English use it commonly. This is an almost hardy evergreen shrub, grown chiefly for its attractive flowers. The single anemone-shaped, scented flowers are glistening white; they are 2-3 in. across and are borne in June and July.

Stunningly beautiful in flower and decent looking when not. The perfect hedge for the narrow flower bed with a lawn on one side and a fence or neighbor on the other. We like this plant and do not know why it's not grown more.

Communities for Carpenteria californica:Chaparral, Riparian (rivers & creeks), Yellow Pine Forest and Central Oak Woodland.

COMAROSTAPHYLIS diversifolia

Summer Holly. Evergreen Shrub

Comarostaphylis diversifolia ssp. diversifolia. is a very slow grower up to 20'. It needs good drainage and indirect water 1-2 times a summer after established if out of its range (prefers summer fog drip, acid sand on hard pan). Native to coastal San Diego, Baja, and in some locations as far north as Solvang. It looks like a manzanita with madrone berries, or a funny looking Toyon. A nice looking bush that is underutilized.

The island form has a rolled leaf, the mainland form has a flat leaf and is called Comarostaphylis diversifolia subsp. planifolia.

Comarostaphylis diversifolia tolerates clay, is great for a bird garden and the fruit is edible.

Communities for Comarostaphylis diversifolia:Chaparral.

STYRAX redivivus

Snowdrop Bush. Deciduous Shrub

A beautiful but little known California native. Slow to mature but worth the wait. Develops into a graceful multistemed deciduous shrub. Dark green rounded leaves clothe the smooth gray branches. Late spring brings dangling clusters of pure white, waxy, bell-shaped blossoms. Grows 6 to 10 ft. tall for sun to light shade. Drought tolerant. We have observed hummingbirds and pipevine swallowtail butterflies nectaring on styrax blossoms.

IRIS douglasiana

Douglas Iris.

Native to the California coast from Santa Barbara to Oregon. Grows both on the edge of coastal forests and on bluffs and prairies along the ocean. Clumps of evergreen, sword-shaped leaves increase readily and are topped with violet-purple blossoms early to mid spring. Important nectar producer for native bees. An adaptable garden subject for cool full sun to light shade. Drought tolerant once established, but occasional summer water will help keep foliage fresher. Deer resistant.

SISYRINCHIUM bellum

Blue-eyed Grass. Perennial

Sisyrinchium bellum is a 1 foot tall perennial with 1 inch blue flowers in Jan.-June. It is widely distributed in California on open, grassy slopes, Redwood forests. Blue Eyed Grass has small, iris-like leaves. It likes full sun and garden water. It also can become very drought tolerant and tolerate full sun everywhere. It grows in sand to clay, coastal bluffs to interior grasslands. In dry full sun in the interior it will go summer deciduous early.

In a native garden Blue Eyed Grass can grow most spots but it's a small perennial so use it amongst rocks, or with other small perennials.

Sisyrinchium bellum tolerates seaside conditions, sand, clay, seasonal flooding, high traffic(people walking on it) and deer.

Communities for Sisyrinchium bellum:Chaparral, Joshua Tree Woodland, Pinyon-Juniper Woodland, Coastal Prairie, Redwood Forest and Central Oak Woodland.

SIDALCEA malvaeflora

Dwarf Checkerbloom, Dwarf Checkermallow. Perennial Herb

Sidalcea malviflora is somewhat variable in appearance and there are many subspecies. In general it is a perennial herb growing from a woody caudex and rhizome, its stem reaching about 60 centimeters in maximum height. It is sparsely to densely hairy in texture. The leaf blades are variable in shape, but are often divided deeply into several lobes. The inflorescence is a dense or loose array of several flowers. The flower has five petals in shades of bright to dark pink, often with white veining, and measuring one to over three centimeters in length.

There are over ten subspecies, some of which are endemic and rare:

S. m. ssp. dolosa is endemic to the San Bernardino Mountains.
S. m. ssp. patula (Siskiyou checkerbloom) is limited to southern Oregon and far northern California.
S. m. ssp. purpurea (purple-stemmed checkerbloom) is endemic and limited to the California coast just north of the San Francisco Bay Area.[

Sidalcea malviflora is native to the west coast of the United States from Washington to California as well as Baja California, where it is a common plant of the chaparral and other habitat types.

SALVIA leucophylla

Purple Sage, Gray Sage. Evergreen Shrub

Salvia leucophylla is an aromatic sage native to the southern coastal mountain ranges of California and Baja California.

The plant's specific epithet, leucophylla, describes the light grayish leaves. The type specimen was collected near Santa Barbara, California by Scottish botanist David Douglas and named by Edward Lee Greene in 1892. The common names refer to the pale purple flowers (Purple sage) or to the grayish leaves (Gray sage).

S. leucophylla is an evergreen shrub that grows up to 3.3 to 4.9 ft tall and wide. Leaves are a light green in the spring, turning grayish-white as they mature, with graceful branches that arch to the ground, sometimes rooting when they touch the ground.

The plant is typically found on dry hillsides and in gravelly soils.

S. leucophylla is widely used in California and xeriscape gardening, preferring full sun and good drainage. There are many cultivars, natural hybrids, and wild hybrids with other Salvia species, making clear naming very confusing.

Some cultivars include:
Salvia leucophylla 'Pt. Sal'
Salvia leucophylla 'Figueroa'
Salvia leucophylla 'Bee's Bliss'[1]
S. leucophylla is known to have allelopathic qualities. It releases a compound in the air that can drift to nearby earth and interfere with seedling growth for many species of plants.

HOLODISCUS discolor

Ocean Spray, Oceanspray, Creambush, Ironwood. Shrub

Holodiscus discolor is a shrub of western North America. It is common in the Pacific Northwest where it is found in both openings and the forest understory at low to moderate elevations.

Holodiscus discolor is a fast-growing deciduous shrub growing to 5 m tall. Its alternate[6] leaves are small, 5–9 cm long and 4–7 cm broad, lobed, juicy green when new. Cascading clusters of white flowers drooping from the branches give the plant its two common names. The flowers have a faint sweet, sugary scent. It bears a small, hairy fruit containing one seed which is light enough to be dispersed by wind.

Historically the plant has been used for many purposes. The Lummi used the flowers as an antidiarrheal and the leaves as a poultice. Many other tribes used the wood and bark for making tools and furniture. Noted for the strength of its wood, it was often used for making digging sticks, spears, arrows, bows, harpoons and nails. The wood, like with many other plants, was often hardened with fire and was then polished using horsetail. Several Native tribes, such as the Stl'atl'imx, would steep the berries in boiling water to use as a treatment for diarrhea, smallpox, chickenpox and as a blood tonic.

Holodiscus discolor, is found in a variety of habitats, from wet coastal forests to drier, cooler mountains further inland. It tends to grow in areas dominated by Douglas-fir. The plant is found in areas prone to wildfire, and it is often the first green shoot to spring up in an area recovering from a burn. It is commonly found in chaparral communities, which burn periodically. It also may grow in areas cleared by logging.

Holodiscus discolor is common in a variety of forest overstories. In the case of California black oak woodland, common understory associate species include western poison-oak, toyon and coastal wood fern.

PENSTEMON labrosus

San Gabriel Penstemon, Beard tongue, Scarlet bugler, Mountain bugler, Southern Scarlet Penstemon, Rabbit Ear Penstemon.

Penstemon labrosus is native to mountains of Southern California from Ventura Co. to Baja from about 3000-10000'(it seems to need the extra rainfall at the higher elevations). The foliage of this scarlet bugler lays on the ground making a minimal appearance blending as well as possible with the pine needles or rocky scree that it lives in/under. From this 6"across flat plant arises one or maybe two 3' spikes of 2" bright red flowers. It will then become nearly invisible again for the year. It grows under Ponderosa and Jeffrey Pine or in rocky, gravelly slopes, in some of the worst climate areas in the U.S. and should do great in the Rockies and in New England. The rainfall (snow and rainfall) in this beard tongue's range is about 12-15"/year. It has tolerates summer water well. Easy, garden tolerant, cold tolerant and shade tolerant. It will not tolerate reflected heat in hot climates. In hot climates give it some shade.

Use a rock to mark where you plant it! In the fall you will not be able to find it until it flowers otherwise.

Really good in a cool, small rock garden or a small perennial garden. It is great for a bird garden. Communities for Penstemon labrosus:Red Fir Forest and Yellow Pine Forest.

HETEROMELES arbutifolia

Toyon, Christmas Berry. Evergreen Shrub, Small Tree

Toyon grows to 6-8 ft. high and 4-5 ft. wide. Toyon can go to 15-20' tall if it's old and happy and become a delightful evergreen multi-stemmed tree with white flowers in summer and red berries in winter.

Toyon makes a good screen or specimen plant.

Toyon is native to much of California. It is drought tolerant after the first few years, but tolerates some water if drainage is good. Relatively fire resistant. Toyon likes full sun, but tolerates full shade. Tolerates serpentine based adobe soils, but also lives in beach sand. The berries are edible but bitter and contain cyanide compounds that can kill you if you eat a few pounds. Birds like the berries.

Deer will eat this on bad years if it's been watered at all. If you protect it for 3-4 years and get it well established they don't hurt it very much (they eat the new growth and leaves below four feet). It is hardy to about 0 F., at -5 F. it can(not always though) grow back from the crown. It is native in beach sand 1/2 mile from the ocean and it grows into the middle Sierras. It has some problems with leaf fungus and bacteria near the coast(needs good air flow). Decent air flow and no summer water after first year in coastal areas. Inland they will tolerate regular water and even heavy shade.

If you need to prune Toyon, it prefers a little all year or if heavy, only in August-September. Toyon can come back from a extreme pruning as it is a crown sprouter, but it was made to only do that every 100-300 years. Pruning it down to the ground every year or even every few years will kill it or make it very disease prone, (the fungus and bacteria again).

Heteromeles arbutifolia tolerates sand, clay and serpentine. It is great for a bird or butterfly garden. The green foliage is evergreen and the flowers are white. Communities for Heteromeles arbutifolia:Chaparral, Coastal Sage Scrub, Mixed-evergreen Forest, Northern Coastal Sage Scrub and Central Oak Woodland.

SATUREJA mimuloides

Monkeyflower Savory. Deciduous Perennial

Satureja mimuloides is a perennial with deep red-orange 1-2 inch flowers. It runs by rhizomes to the limit of the water source it is in. It likes a wet spot in full sun. Hummingbirds like this plant and if you cut it on a warm sunny day, you will be bombed by squadrons of hummingbirds! This one has a fragrance like mild spearmint. Syn. Clinopodium mimuloides

Satureja mimuloides tolerates sand, clay, no drainage and seasonal flooding. Great for a bird garden, it is edible and fragrant. Communities for Satureja mimuloides:Chaparral and Douglas Fir Forest.

PENSTEMON heterophylus

Foothills Penstemon. Herbaceous Perennial

Penstemon heterophyllus varieties include the seed strains derived from it, such as ‘Blue Springs', ‘Heavenly Blue', ‘True Blue', and ‘Züriblau' (often listed as ‘Blue of Zurich'). The species itself is native to the Coast Ranges of California and the foothills of the Sierra Nevada. 18-inch flowering stems will begin to form on each shrubby clump, and by late May the wands of small, snapdragon-like flowers will almost obscure the foliage, and the display will continue throughout all of June. "Sky blue" is one of the most abused descriptions in the horticultural literature, but these flowers look like a cloudless noon made tangible. When the floral fireworks start to peter out, shear back the flowering stems to keep the plants from looking bedraggled (but let one or two ripen seed so that you have a source of new plants; penstemons tend to be short-lived).

Penstemon heterophyllus doesn't need heaps of well-rotted manure and will get by quite happily on a minimum of water once established. What it does need is full sun and excellent drainage. If your soil is extremely acid, add a handful of ground limestone at planting time. Subzero temperatures can cause die back, so a winter mulch is a good idea in USDA Zone 6–it's a small price to pay for being able to gaze for weeks at the true blue of the Far West.

BED 13

QUERCUS agrifolia

Coast Live Oak. Evergreen Tree

Quercus agrifolia, highly variable and often shrubby, native to the California Floristic Province. It grows west of the Sierra Nevada from Mendocino County, California, south to northern Baja California in Mexico. It is classified in the red oak section (Quercus sect. Lobatae).

This species is commonly sympatric with canyon live oak, and the two may be hard to distinguish because their spinose leaves are superficially similar.

Coast live oak typically has a much-branched trunk and reaches a mature height of 10–25 meters. Some specimens may attain an age exceeding 250 years, with trunk diameters up to three or four meters, such as those on the Filoli estate in San Mateo County.

The trunk, particularly for older individuals, may be highly contorted, massive and gnarled. The crown is broadly rounded and dense, especially when aged 20 to 70 years; in later life the trunk and branches are more well defined and the leaf density lower.

The leaves are dark green, oval, often convex in shape, 2–7 cm long and 1–4 cm broad; the leaf margin is spiny-toothed (spinose), with sharp thistly fibers that extend from the lateral leaf veins. The outer layers of leaves are designed for maximum solar absorption, containing two to three layers of photosynthetic cells.

These outer leaves are deemed to be small in size to more efficiently re-radiate the heat gained from solar capture. Shaded leaves are generally broader and thinner, having only a single layer of photosynthetic cells. The convex leaf shape may be useful for interior leaves which depend on capturing reflected light scattered in random directions from the outer canopy.

The flowers are produced in early-to-mid spring; the male flowers are pendulous catkins 5–10 cm long, the female flowers inconspicuous, less than 0.5 cm long, with 1-3 clustered together. The fruit is a slender reddish brown acorn 2-3.5 cm long and 1-1.5 cm broad, with the basal quarter enclosed in a cupule; unusually for a red oak, the acorns mature about 7–8 months after pollination (most red oak acorns take 18 months to mature).

There are two varieties of Quercus agrifolia:

Quercus agrifolia var. agrifolia. Throughout the range of the species. Leaves that are glabrous to slightly hairy on the abaxial side, especially near the leaf vein axils. Hybrids with Q. kelloggii, Q. parvula var. shevei, and Q. wislizenii are known.
Quercus agrifolia var. oxyadenia. Southwesternmost California (San Diego area), Baja California. Leaves that are tomentose abaxially, with densely interwoven hairs. It prefers granitic soils; hybrids with Q. kelloggii known.

Several hybrids between coast live oak and other red oak species have been documented. Hybrids with interior live oak (Q. wislizenii) are known in many areas in northern California. Coast live oak also hybridizes with Nuttall's scrub oak and Shreve oak (Q. parvula var. shrevii). All these oak species show evidence of introgression with one another.

The name Quercus agrifolia literally means "field-leaved oak," from the Latin "quercus," meaning "oak," "agri" meaning "field," and folia, meaning "leaved." This species is sometimes known by the name "California live oak".

Coast Live Oak off California 101, central coast.
Coast live oak is the only California native oak that actually thrives in the coastal environment, although it is rare on the immediate shore; it enjoys the mild winter and summer climate afforded by ocean proximity, and it is somewhat tolerant of aerosol-borne sea salt. The coastal fog supplies relief from the rainless California summer heat.

It is the dominant overstory plant of the coast live oak woodland habitat, often joined by California bay laurel and California buckeye north of Big Sur. Associated understory plants include toyon, various manzanitas and western poison-oak.

Normally the tree is found on well drained soils of coastal hills and plains, often near year round or perennial streams. It may be found in several natural communities including coast live oak woodland, Engelmann oak woodland, valley oak woodland and both northern and southern mixed evergreen forests. While normally found within 100 kilometers of the Pacific Ocean at elevations less than 700 meters, in southern California it occasionally occurs at up to 1,500 meters in altitude.

The California oak moth (Phryganidia californica) caterpillar subsists entirely on living and fallen leaves of the Coast Live Oak. In 8-10 year cycles, the caterpillar will appear in sufficient abundance to denude healthy trees. The trees recover, and botanists speculate that the species provide mutual benefit, possibly in the form of fertilizer for the oak. The coast live oak is also the only known foodplant of Chionodes vanduzeei caterpillars.

Coast live oak at Rancho Los Encinos in the San Fernando Valley
At least twelve distinct cultures of Native Americans are known to have consumed the acorns as a dietary staple.[citation needed] In the 18th century Spaniards in the San Fernando Valley used the wood for charcoal to fire kilns in making adobe. Later this form of charcoal would be utilized in the baking, gunpowder and electric power industries.

In the 18th and 19th centuries shipbuilders sought out the odd angular branches to make special joints. Pioneers moving west would harvest small amounts for making farm implements and wagon wheels, but the greatest impact was the wholesale clearing of oak woodlands to erect sprawling cities such as San Diego and San Francisco. The irregular shape often let the tree escape widespread harvest for building timbers, and also led the early settlers to endow the coast live oak with mystical qualities. Its stateliness has made it a subject of historical landscape painters throughout California modern history since the mid-19th century.

Coast live oak has also become a common addition to western USA landscaping. It is however sensitive to changes in grading and drainage; in particular, it is important to respect the root crown level and avoid adding soil near the trunk when construction or landscaping occurs.

Also, if incorporating it into a landscaping scheme with artificial irrigation, it is important to avoid regular watering within the oak's drip line (canopy), since wet soil in the summer increases infection rates by soil-borne Phytophthora diseases like sudden oak death.

The coast live oak, especially in its Spanish forms encino or encina, encinitas "little oaks", and encinal "oak grove", gave its name to seven land grants across California and to many communities and geographic features.

These include Rancho Los Encinos, the community of Encino near Los Angeles, Encinitas near San Diego, and Encinal del Temescal, now the city of Oakland.

Paso Robles ('Pass of the Oaks') also refers to oaks as a geographical place name.

CALYCANTHUS occidentalis

Sweetshrub, Spicebush. Shrub

Spicebush has fragrant, burgundy flowers, (April-Aug.), that smells kind of like a delicate red wine (if there is such a thing). Native to the mountains of central and northern California.

Likes sun to partial shade and moist soil. It is tolerant to sandy or clay soils, and likes water. In the interior it will get leaf burn if it goes dry, but looks good if given regular water. Cattle and deer do not like this one but will eat it when desperate. If planted in shade and given regular water Spice Bush can be trained onto a trellis as a wine wall. Calycanthus occidentalis is pollinated by beetles in the Nitidulidae family.
Calycanthus occidentalis tolerates sand, clay, no drainage and seasonal flooding.

Calycanthus occidentalis's foliage turns a different color in the fall, color is green, type is deciduous and has fragrance.
Calycanthus occidentalis's flower color is red and has a fragrance.

Communities for Calycanthus occidentalis:Riparian (rivers & creeks), Yellow Pine Forest and Central Oak Woodland.

IRIS douglasiana

Douglas Iris.

Native to the California coast from Santa Barbara to Oregon. Grows both on the edge of coastal forests and on bluffs and prairies along the ocean. Clumps of evergreen, sword-shaped leaves increase readily and are topped with violet-purple blossoms early to mid spring. Important nectar producer for native bees. An adaptable garden subject for cool full sun to light shade. Drought tolerant once established, but occasional summer water will help keep foliage fresher. Deer resistant.

GARRYA elliptica ‘James Roof'

Silk Tassel. Evergreen Shrub

Garrya elliptica, 'James Roof' is a form of Silk Tassel that forms a small tree with yellowish male catkins 10 inches long in early spring. The catkins turn gray as they age. The name silk tassel describes the catkins. Silk Tassel is native coast ranges San Luis Obispo Co. to Ore..

Silk Tassel likes sun near the coast, part shade inland with moderate water. It does not like being more than a few miles from the ocean as the large temperature swings make it unstable. If you are inland and you have a east wall or pool under high shade with summer temperatures never exceeding 100 F. you can try it. No cold damage at 12 deg., it got severely burned at 0, a couple did not recover. Deer generally don't eat these plants.

Garrya elliptica, 'James Roof' plants can become drought tolerant in moderate climates with rainfall above 20 inches, but looks a great deal better with garden water or on the edge of garden water. The plant itself has a v shape to it. Multi-stemmed from the base flaring (arching) to 8 ft. wide at 8 ft. The leaves are a green with a somewhat glossy top and gray underside. The stems are green to a reddish brown. It can look woodsy to formal according to its placement. I usually use it to transition from one to the other. Excellent with redwoods or against a red brick wall or walk. Very effective as a native edge to a watered area like along your fence line and the uppity neighbors that insist on watering daily.

Garrya elliptica 'James Roof' tolerates clay and serpentine. Communities for Garrya elliptica James Roof:Chaparral, Mixed-evergreen Forest and Northern Coastal Sage Scrub.

GALVEZIA speciosa

Showy Island Snapdragon. Evergreen Perennial

Galvezia speciosa (syn. Gambelia speciosa) is native to the Channel Islands of California and Guadalupe Island, Mexico.

Island Snapdragon is a perennial, 2 1/2 ft. by 4 ft.. Flowers are red, snapdragon like, in spring. Native to Channel Islands. Likes to sun to part shade. It is drought tolerant (looks better with water). It is excellent ground cover near coast. It will trail out nearly flat. At 27 deg. the plant will freeze to the ground but recover; at about 20 deg. it becomes questionable that it will recover. Syn. Gambelia speciosa
Galvezia speciosa tolerates seaside conditions and clay and is great for a bird garden.

PHYSOCARPUS capitatus

Pacific Ninebark, Tall Ninebark.

Physocarpus capitatus is a species of Physocarpus native to western North America from southern Alaska east to Montana and Utah, and south to southern California.

The bark is flaky and peals away in many layers.
It is a dense deciduous shrub growing to 3 ft 3 in–8 ft 2 in tall. The name comes from the appearance of the bark, which is flaky, peeling away in many layers. The shrub has distinctive maple-like lobed leaves 1.2–5.5 in long and broad, and clusters of small white flowers with five petals and numerous red-tipped stamens. The unique fruit is an inflated glossy red pod which turns dry and brown and then splits open to release seeds.

It is often found in wetlands, but also forms thickets along rivers and in moist forest habitats. While it grows most robustly in wet environments, it is drought-tolerant to a degree and is a popular California garden plant.

ROSA californica

California Wild Rose. Rose

Rosa californica is a species of rose native to the U.S. states of California and Oregon and the northern part of Baja California, Mexico. The plant is native to chaparral and woodlands and the Sierra Nevada foothills, and can survive drought, though it grows most abundantly in moist soils near water sources.

Rosa californica is a bush or thicket-forming shrub with prickly, curving stems. The fragrant flowers may grow singly or in inflorescences of several blooms. Each rose is open-faced and generally flat, with five petals in any shade of pink from almost white to deep magenta. It produces typical rose hips containing yellow seeds.

Rosa californica is used in California native gardens and habitat gardens, forming colonies, and attracting wildlife with the bright rose hips in autumn.

The rose hips were used during World War II for their high vitamin content. They are dried for tea, or for use in jellies and sauces. The Cahuilla ate the rose buds raw or soaked them in water for drinking. A tea was also made from the roots, and used for colds. Because the rose hips remain on the plant throughout the winter, they provide food for wildlife during times when little forage is available.

MAIANTHEMUM dilatatum

Snakeberry, Two-leaved Solomon's Seal, False Lily-of-the-Valley.

Maianthemum dilatatum is a common rhizomatous perennial flowering plant that is native to western North America from northern California to the Aleutian islands, and Asia across the Kamchatka Peninsula, Japan, and Korea. It grows in coastal temperate rainforests, and is often the dominant groundcover plant in Sitka Spruce forests.

The plant produces an erect, unbranched stem up to about 40 centimeters tall. A non-flowering shoot bears one smooth, waxy, shiny leaf up to 10 centimeters long and 5 to 8 broad, hence its scientific name (dilatatum means 'broad'). On plants that are flowering, 2 or 3 leaves are produced oppositely on the stems. The leaf is oval in shape with a heart-shaped base.

Immature berries of Maianthemum dilatatum
The inflorescence is an erect raceme with star-shaped white flowers. They each have four tepals and four stamens. After fertilization the fruit produced is a berry 6 millimeters in diameter. The berry is speckled red when immature and solid red when ripe. Each has 1 to 4 seeds.

The plant has many ethnobotanical uses. The roots and leaves were used medicinally, and the berries were occasionally used for food.

Being tolerant of deep shade, drought, and extensive watering, the plant is becoming more popular as a shade groundcover in gardening. Care should be taken when using it in gardens as it can quickly escape confines with its creeping rhizomes and may crowd out other plants.

ACER circinatum 'Sunglow'

Sunglow Maple. Deciduous Shrub

A slow-growing deciduous shrub which is famous for its bright apricot-hued spring foliage. By summer, leaves become creamy-pale green with orange veins. Marvelous! Fall color is crimson to red. Prefers partial shade in well-drained soil. 5' tall x 3' wide in 10 years. Hardy to -20 degrees. USDA zone 5.

BED 14

ACER circinatum

Vine Maple. Deciduous Shrub

Acer circinatum is a species of maple native to western North America, from southwest British Columbia to northern California, usually within 190 mi. of the Pacific Ocean coast, found along the Columbia Gorge and Coastal Forest. It belongs to the Palmatum group of maple trees native to East Asia with its closest relatives being the Acer japonicum (Fullmoon Maple) and Acer pseudosieboldianum (Korean Maple). It can be difficult to distinguish from these species in cultivation. It is the only member of the Palmatum group that resides outside of Asia.

It most commonly grows as a large shrub growing to around 16 to 26 ft tall, but it will occasionally form a small to medium-sized tree. It typically grows in the under story below much taller forest trees, but can sometimes be found in open ground, and occurs at altitudes from sea level up to 4,900 ft.

Vine Maple trees can bend over easily. Sometimes, this can cause the top of the tree to grow into the ground and send out a new root system, creating a natural arch.

ACER circinatum 'Burgundy Jewel'

Burgundy Jewel Vine Maple. Deciduous Tree

A small deciduous tree or shrub. Unlike other vine maples, this cultivar has purple-red leaves which hold their color well throughout summer, especially in full sun. Fall color is orange to red. Prefers full sun in well-drained soil. 6' tall x 4' wide in 10 years. Hardy to -20 degrees. USDA zone 5.

ABIES bracteata

Bristlecone Fir, Santa Lucia Fir.

Abies bracteata is a rare fir, confined to slopes and the bottoms of rocky canyons in the Santa Lucia Mountains on the central coast of California, USA. A small remnant community exists on the highest northern slopes of the Santa Susana Mountains in Southern California.

It is a tree 20–35 m tall, with a slender, spire-like form. The bark is reddish-brown with wrinkles, lines and resin vesicles ('blisters'). The branches are downswept. The needle-like leaves are arranged spirally on the shoot, but twisted at the base to spread either side of the shoot in two moderately forward-pointing ranks with a 'v' gap above the shoot; hard and stiff with a sharply pointed tip, 3.5–6 cm long and 2.5–3 mm broad, with two bright white stomatal bands on the underside. The cones are ovoid, 6–9 cm long (to 12 cm including the bracts), and differ from other firs in that the bracts end in very long, spreading, yellow-brown bristles 3–5 cm long; they disintegrate in autumn to release the winged seeds. The male (pollen) cones are 2 cm long, shedding pollen in spring.

A popular ornamental, it can be seen in many arboreta.

CALOCEDRUS decurrens

Incense Cedar, California Incense Cedar. Conifer

Calocedrus decurrens, (syn. Libocedrus decurrens Torr.), is a species of conifer native to western North America, with the bulk of the range in the United States, from central western Oregon through most of California and the extreme west of Nevada, and also a short distance into northwest Mexico in northern Baja California. It grows at altitudes of 50–2900 m. It is the most widely known species in the genus, and is often simply called 'incense cedar' without the regional qualifier.

Calocedrus decurren is a large tree, typically reaching heights of 130–200 ft and a trunk diameter of up to 9.8 ft. The largest known tree is 226 ft tall with 15 ft diameter trunk. It has a broad conic crown of spreading branches. The bark is orange-brown weathering grayish, smooth at first, becoming fissured and exfoliating in long strips on the lower trunk on old trees.

The foliage is produced in flattened sprays with scale-like leaves 2–15 mm long; they are arranged in opposite decussate pairs, with the successive pairs closely then distantly spaced, so forming apparent whorls of four; the facial pairs are flat, with the lateral pairs folded over their bases. The leaves are bright green on both sides of the shoots with only inconspicuous stomata. The foliage, when crushed, gives off an aroma somewhat akin to shoe-polish.

The seed cones are 20–35 mm long, pale green to yellow, with four (rarely six) scales arranged in opposite decussate pairs; the outer pair of scales each bears two winged seeds, the inner pair(s) usually being sterile and fused together in a flat plate. The cones turn orange to yellow-brown when mature about 8 months after pollination. The pollen cones are 6–8 mm long.[3]

This tree is the preferred host of a wood wasp, Syntexis libocedrii a living fossil species which lays its eggs in the smoldering wood immediately after a forest fire. The tree is also host to Incense-cedar mistletoe (Phoradendron libocedri), a parasitic plant which can often be found hanging from its branches.

The incense cedar is one of the most fire and drought tolerant plants in California. Although the tree is killed by hot, stand-replacing crown fire, it spreads rapidly after lower intensity burns. This has given the incense cedar a competitive advantage over other species such as the Bigcone Douglas-fir in recent years.

The wood is the primary material for wooden pencils, because it is soft and tends to sharpen easily without forming splinters.

The Native Americans of California] used the plant in traditional medicine, basket making, hunting bows, building materials, and to produce fire by friction. The Maidu Concow tribe name for the plant is hö'-tä (Konkow language).

Calocedrus decurrens is cultivated by plant nurseries as ornamental tree, for planting in gardens and parks. It is used in traditional, drought tolerant, native plant, and wildlife gardens; and used in designed natural landscaping and habitat restoration projects in California. It is valued for its columnar form and evergreen foliage textures.

The tree is also grown in gardens and parks in cool summer climates, including the Pacific Northwest in the Northwestern United States and British Columbia, eastern Great Britain and continental Northern Europe. In these areas it can develop an especially narrow columnar crown, an unexplained consequence of the cooler climatic conditions that is rare in trees within its warm summer natural range in the California Floristic Province. Other cultivated species from the Cupressaceae family can have similar crown forms. This plant has gained the <B>Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.

CHLOROGALUM pomeridianum

Wavy-leafed Soap Plant, California Soaproot, Amole, Wild Potato. Perennial

Chlorogalum pomeridianum is the most common and most widely distributed of the soap plants, soaproots or amoles, which make up the genus Chlorogalum of flowering plants. It is occasionally known as the "wild potato", but given the plant's lack of either resemblance or relationship to the potato, this name is not recommended.

It is found in most of California from the coasts to the western foothills of the Sierra Nevada, and in the Klamath Mountains in southwestern Oregon, but not in either state's desert regions.[1] Wavy-leafed soap plant grows on rock bluffs, grasslands, chaparral, and in open woodlands.

Like all the soap plants, Chlorogalum pomeridianum is a perennial that grows from a bulb, which is brown, between 7 and 15 cm in diameter, slightly elongated, and covered in thick, coarse fibers.

The flowers are borne on a long stem, normally longer than the leaves, and are from 15 to 30 mm long. The six petals (actually only three of them are petals in the technical sense; the other three are sepals) are up to 35 mm long and curving. They are typically white but have a noticeable mid-vein which can be purple or green in color. The six stamens are large and noticeable, and yellow or orange. The flowers are bisexual (include both female and male parts).

They open only in the late afternoon or evening, remaining open during the night but closing by the morning. Pollination is by evening- or night-flying insects.

Three varieties are recognized:
- Chlorogalum pomeridianum var. divaricatum – endemic to some coastal regions of California (the Central Coast and southern parts of the North Coast), found only at elevations below about 100 metres (330 ft).
- Chlorogalum pomeridianum var. minus – endemic to the inner north and outer south Pacific Coast Ranges of California, and the San Francisco Bay Area. This variety has a less fibrous bulb than the others. On the CNPS Inventory of Rare and Endangered Plants.[4]
- Chlorogalum pomeridianum var. pomeridianum, Nomlaki language: shlā – found throughout the range of the species.[5][6]
The basionym of the species was Scilla pomeridianum. It has also been known as Laothoe pomeridiana.

The fibers surrounding the bulb were widely used, bound together, to make small brushes. Extracts of the bulbs could also be used as a sealant or glue.

The juices of the bulb contain saponins that form a lather when mixed with water, and both Native American people (e.g. Miwok tribe) and early European settlers used the bulbs as a kind of soap; this is the origin of the plant's name. It was particularly used for washing hair, since it was held to be effective against dandruff.

The young leaves can be used as food, but the saponins in the bulbs make these poisonous. However saponins are very poorly absorbed by the body and usually pass straight through, and in any case they can be destroyed by thorough cooking. The Miwok people roasted and ate the bulbs as a winter food. In February 1847 Patrick Breen of the ill-fated Donner Party recorded that a Native American gave the starving settler some "roots resembling Onions in shape [that] taste some like a sweet potatoe [sic], all full of little tough fibres." Breen's son later called the roots "California soap-root"–almost certainly C. pomeridianum.

Saponins are much more toxic to some other animals than they are to humans. Fish are particularly susceptible, and the bulb juices were used to kill or stun them so they could be caught easily.

The bulbs also had various medicinal uses, both external (e.g., for making a poultice to be used as an antiseptic, or as a rub in cases of rheumatism) and internal (decoctions were used for a range of purposes, including as a diuretic, as a laxative and against stomachache).

CORNUS nutallii

Pacific Dogwood, Mountain Dogwood, Western Dogwood, California Dogwood. Deciduous Tree

Cornus nuttallii is a species of dogwood native to western North America from the lowlands of southern British Columbia to the mountains of southern California, with an inland population in central Idaho. It is a small to medium-sized deciduous tree, reaching 10–25 m tall.

The small flowers are in a dense cluster surrounded by large white bracts
The leaves are opposite, simple, oval, 8–12 cm long, and 5–8 cm broad. The flowers are individually small and inconspicuous, 2–3 mm across, produced in a dense, rounded, greenish-white flowerhead 2 cm diameter; the 4-8 large white "petals" are actually bracts, each bract 4–7 cm long and broad. The fruit is a compound pink-red berry about 3 cm diameter, containing 50-100 small seeds; it is edible, though not very palatable.

Like the related Cornus florida, it is very susceptible to dogwood anthracnose, a disease caused by the fungus Discula destructiva. This has killed many of the larger plants in the wild and also restricted its use as an ornamental tree.

Cornus nuttallii is named after Thomas Nuttall, an English botanist and zoologist who worked in North America in the nineteenth century.

Some Plateau Indian tribes used the bark as a laxative and emetic.

It is the provincial flower of British Columbia. It was once protected by law in the province (in an act which also protected Rhododendron macrophyllum and Trillium ovatum), but this was repealed in 2002.

FRAGARIA vesca

Wild Strawberry, Woodland Strawberry, Alpine Strawberry, European Strawberry, Fraise des Boise. Herbaceous Perennial

Fragaria vesca grows naturally throughout much of the Northern Hemisphere, and that produces edible fruits.

Typical habitat is along trails and roadsides, embankments, hillsides, stone- and gravel-laid paths and roads, meadows, young woodlands, sparse forest, woodland edges, and clearings. Often plants can be found where they do not get sufficient light to form fruit. In the southern part of its range, it can only grow in shady areas; further north it tolerates more sun. It is tolerant of a variety of moisture levels (except very wet or dry conditions). It can survive mild fires and/or establish itself after fires.

Although F. vesca primarily propagates via runners, viable seeds are also found in soil seed banks and seem to germinate when the soil is disturbed (away from existing populations of F. vesca).

Its leaves serve as significant food source for a variety of ungulates, such as mule deer and elk, and the fruit are eaten by a variety of mammals and birds that also help to distribute the seeds in their droppings.

Evidence from archaeological excavations suggests that Fragaria vesca has been consumed by humans since the Stone Age. The woodland strawberry was first cultivated in ancient Persia where farmers knew the fruit as Toot Farangi. Its seeds were later taken along the Silk Road towards the far East and to Europe where it was widely cultivated until the 18th century, when it began to be replaced by the garden strawberry, (Fragaria × ananassa), which has much larger fruit and showed greater variation, making them better suited for further breeding.

Woodland strawberry fruit is strongly flavored, and is still collected and grown for domestic use and on a small scale commercially for the use of gourmets and as an ingredient for commercial jam, sauces, liqueurs, cosmetics and alternative medicine. In Turkey hundreds of tons of wild fruit are harvested annually, mainly for export.

Most of the cultivated varieties have a long flowering period. Plants tend to lose vigour after a few years due to their abundant fruiting and flowering with final decline caused by viral diseases. Cultivars that form stolons are often used as groundcover, while cultivars that do not may be used as border plants. Some cultivars are bred for their ornamental value. Fragaria vesca is sometimes used as an herbal medicine; an herbal tea made from the leaves, stems, and flowers is believed to aid in the treatment of diarrhea.

POLYSTICHUM munitum

Western Sword Fern. Evergreen Fern

Polystichum munitum is native to western North America, where it is one of the most abundant ferns. It occurs along the Pacific coast from southeastern Alaska to southern California, and also inland east to southeastern British Columbia, northern Idaho and western Montana, with isolated populations in interior northern British Columbia, the Black Hills in South Dakota, and on Guadalupe Island off Baja California.

The dark green fronds of this fern grow 1.6 to 5.9 ft tall, in a tight clump spreading out radially from a round base. They are single-pinnate, with the pinnae alternating on the stalk. Individual fronds live for 1.5 to 2.5 years and remain attached to the rhizome after withering.

The favored habitat of this fern is the understory of moist coniferous forests at low elevations. It grows best in a well-drained acidic soil of rich humus and small stones. Sword ferns are very tough and can survive occasional dry periods, but do well only with consistent moisture, light sunlight, and prefer cool weather to overly warm. In cultivation, they also respond well to regular, light applications of fertilizer.

While this fern is a favored horticultural subject in western North America, it has been found to be difficult or impossible to grow satisfactorily in the eastern part of the continent.

In spring, with no other food available, Quileute, Makah, Klallam, Squamish, Sechelt, Haida, and other Native American/First Nations peoples roasted, peeled and ate the rhizomes.

Western sword fern spores have many medicinal uses, including relieving the pain from the sting of a stinging nettle. It is also commonly used by florists as an ornamental plant.

IRIS innominata

Del Norte Iris

Iris innominata is a species of iris native to southern Oregon, and California along the north coast and Klamath Ranges in Del Norte County, California.

The leaves are dense and evergreen, up to 20 cm. The flower is typically deep golden yellow with darker veins, although colors may vary. The flower stems are about 12 cm and usually bear 1–2 flowers in spring.

It is on the California Native Plant Society Inventory of Rare and Endangered Plants List 4, Limited distribution (Watch List).

Iris innominata, used in gardens, does best in locations with cool, wet winters and warm, dry summers, in neutral or slightly acidic soil, with good drainage, and sun or partial shade. It is often used for hybridizing with other Iris species. Many plants sold under this name in nurseries are hybrids.

FESTUCA idahoensis ‘Siskiyou Blue'

Siskiyou Blue Fescue. Bunch Grass

Festuca 'Siskiyou Blue' is a long living cool season bunch grass with tight clumps of narrow chalky-blue foliage 12 to 18 inches tall by slightly wider with flowers stalks rising straight up about 6 inches above the foliage in late spring into early summer. Plant in full sun to light shade in most regular to barren well-drained soils with regular, occasional to infrequent irrigation. Very cold hardy (to USDA Zone 4). Resistant to deer predation. This is an elegant looking fescue with leaves that are longer than the typical European fescues for a softer more graceful look. It was introduced by the Berkeley Botanic Garden where it was a chance seedling selection. It was initially thought to be a Festuca idahoensis but the current thought is that it is a hybrid between the native Festuca idahoensis and a European Festuca glauca (F. ovina glauca, Hort.). Though technically no longer a "native plant" it works well with native and other mediterranean climate plants and is non-invasive.

BED 15

SEQUOIA sempervirens

Sequoia, Coast Redwood, Coastal Redwood, California Redwood. Evergreen Tree

Sequoia sempervirens is the sole living species of the genus Sequoia in the cypress family Cupressaceae (formerly treated in Taxodiaceae). Common names include coast redwood, coastal redwood[3] and California redwood. It is an evergreen, long-lived, monoecious tree living 1,200–1,800 years or more. This species includes the tallest living trees on Earth, reaching up to 379 feet in height (without the roots) and up to 27.4 feet in diameter at breast height. These trees are also among the oldest living things on Earth. Before commercial logging and clearing began by the 1850s, this massive tree occurred naturally in an estimated 2,100,000 acres along much of coastal California (excluding southern California where rainfall is not sufficient) and the southwestern corner of coastal Oregon within the United States. An estimated 95% or more of the original old-growth redwood trees have been cut down despite the wood being of poor use for the construction needs of the time.

The name sequoia sometimes refers to the subfamily Sequoioideae, which includes S. sempervirens along with Sequoiadendron (giant sequoia) and Metasequoia (dawn redwood). On its own, the term redwood usually refers to the coast redwood, which is covered in this article, and not to the other two species.

Scottish botanist David Don described the redwood as the evergreen taxodium (Taxodium sempervirens) in his colleague Aylmer Bourke Lambert's 1824 work A description of the genus Pinus. Austrian botanist Stephan Endlicher erected the genus Sequoia in his 1847 work Synopsis coniferarum, giving the redwood its current binomial name of Sequoia sempervirens. The redwood is one of three living species, each in its own genus, in the subfamily Sequoioideae. Molecular studies have shown the three to be each other's closest relatives, generally with the redwood and giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum) as each other's closest relatives. However Yang and colleagues in 2010 queried the polyploid state of the redwood and speculate that it may have arisen as an ancient hybrid between ancestors of the giant sequoia and dawn redwood (Metasequoia). Using two different single copy nuclear genes, LFY and NLY, to generate phylogenetic trees, they found that Sequoia was clustered with Metasequoia in the tree generated using the LFY gene, but with Sequoiadendron in the tree generated with the NLY gene. Further analysis strongly supported the hypothesis that Sequoia was the result of a hybridization event involving Metasequoia and Sequoiadendron. Thus, Yang and colleagues hypothesize that the inconsistent relationships among Metasequoia, Sequoia, and Sequoiadendron could be a sign of reticulate evolution (in which two species hybridize and give rise to a third) among the three genera. However, the long evolutionary history of the three genera (the earliest fossil remains being from the Jurassic) make resolving the specifics of when and how Sequoia originated once and for all a difficult matter–especially since it in part depends on an incomplete fossil record.

The species is monoecious, with pollen and seed cones on the same plant. Fog is of major importance in coast redwood ecology.

Coast redwoods occupy a narrow strip of land approximately 470 mi in length and 5–47 mi in width along the Pacific coast of North America; the most southerly grove is in Monterey County, California, and the most northerly groves are in extreme southwestern Oregon. The prevailing elevation range is 98–2,460 feet above sea level, occasionally down to 0 and up to 3,000 ft. They usually grow in the mountains where precipitation from the incoming moisture off the ocean is greater. The tallest and oldest trees are found in deep valleys and gullies, where year-round streams can flow, and fog drip is regular. The trees above the fog layer, above about 2,296 feet, are shorter and smaller due to the drier, windier, and colder conditions. In addition, Douglas-fir, pine, and tanoak often crowd out redwoods at these elevations. Few redwoods grow close to the ocean, due to intense salt spray, sand, and wind. Coalescence of coastal fog accounts for a considerable part of the trees' water needs.

The northern boundary of its range is marked by two groves on the Chetco River on the western fringe of the Klamath Mountains, 15 mi north of the California-Oregon border. The largest (and tallest) populations are in Redwood National and State Parks (Del Norte and Humboldt Counties) and Humboldt Redwoods State Park (Humboldt County, California), with the majority located in the much larger Humboldt County. The southern boundary of its range is the Los Padres National Forest's Silver Peak Wilderness in the Santa Lucia Mountains of the Big Sur area of Monterey County, California. The southernmost grove is in the Southern Redwood Botanical Area, just north of the national forest's Salmon Creek trailhead.

This native area provides a unique environment with heavy seasonal rains up to 100 inches annually. Cool coastal air and fog drip keep this forest consistently damp year round. Several factors, including the heavy rainfall, create a soil with fewer nutrients than the trees need, causing them to depend heavily on the entire biotic community of the forest, especially complete recycling of the trees when dead. This forest community includes coast Douglas-fir, Pacific madrone, tanoak, western hemlock, and other trees, along with a wide variety of ferns, mosses, mushrooms, and redwood sorrel. Redwood forests provide habitat for a variety of amphibians, bird, mammals, and reptiles. Old-growth redwood stands provide habitat for the federally threatened spotted owl and the California-endangered marbled murrelet.

The thick, tannin-rich bark, combined with foliage starting high above the ground provides good protection from both fire and insect damage, contributing to the coast redwood's longevity. The oldest known specimen is about 2,200 years old; many others in the wild exceed 600 years. The numerous claims of older trees are incorrect. Because of their seemingly timeless lifespans, coast redwoods were deemed the "everlasting redwood" at the turn of the century; in Latin, sempervirens means "ever green" or "everlasting". Redwood must endure fire to attain such great ages, so this species has many fire-resistant characteristics. In addition, fires appear to actually benefit redwoods by causing substantial mortality in competing species while having only minor effects on redwood. A study published in 2010, the first to compare postwildfire survival and regeneration of redwood and associated species, concluded fires of all severity increase the relative abundance of redwood and higher-severity fires provide the greatest benefit.

The height of S. sempervirens is closely tied to fog availability, as taller trees become less frequent as fog becomes less frequent. As S. sempervirens' height increases, transporting water via water potential to the leaves becomes increasingly more difficult due to gravity.

Coast redwood reproduces both sexually by seed and asexually by sprouting of buds, layering, or lignotubers.

Coast redwoods can also reproduce asexually by layering or sprouting from the root crown, stump, or even fallen branches; if a tree falls over, it will regenerate a row of new trees along the trunk, so many trees naturally grow in a straight line. Sprouts originate from dormant or adventitious buds at or under the surface of the bark. The dormant sprouts are stimulated when the main adult stem gets damaged or starts to die. Many sprouts spontaneously erupt and develop around the circumference of the tree trunk. Within a short period after sprouting, each sprout will develop its own root system, with the dominant sprouts forming a ring of trees around the parent root crown or stump. This ring of trees is called a "fairy ring". Sprouts can achieve heights of (8 ft) in a single growing season.

Redwoods may also reproduce using burls. A burl is a woody lignotuber that commonly appears on a redwood tree below the soil line, though usually within 10 ft in depth from the soil surface. Burls are capable of sprouting into new trees when detached from the parent tree, though exactly how this happens is yet to be studied. Shoot clones commonly sprout from burls and are often turned into decorative hedges when found in suburbia.

The species is very tolerant of flooding and flood deposits, the roots rapidly growing into thick silt deposits after floods.

P.H. Shaughnessy, Chief Engineer of the San Francisco Fire Department wrote,

"In the recent great fire of San Francisco, that began April 18th, 1906, we succeeded in finally stopping it in nearly all directions where the unburned buildings were almost entirely of frame construction, and if the exterior finish of these buildings had not been of redwood lumber, I am satisfied that the area of the burned district would have been greatly extended."

Because of its impressive resistance to decay, redwood was extensively used for railroad ties and trestles throughout California. Many of the old ties have been recycled for use in gardens as borders, steps, house beams, etc. Redwood burls are used in the production of table tops, veneers, and turned goods.

Even though a redwood is an impressive tree Sequoia sempervirens is NOT a good choice for a small suburban lots if you wish to remain a good neighbor. Even in average soil it will quickly overwhelm the surrounding area. After growing an extensive root system, a juvenile tree will generally add five or six feet to its height each year. Its roots are very efficient at removing nutrients from your, and your neighbor's soil. They are shallow, may extend well beyond the crown width of the tree, damaging foundations, driveways and cracking water and drain pipes. Many years after a tree's removal, the existing roots may continue to send up sprouts. Use of root barrier panels can help in urban settings where space may allow for careful positioning. Few people realize redwoods can reproduce asexually and can regenerate if knocked over or cut down. As conifer's they provide year-round heavy shade which will restrict the growth of grass and typical suburban landscaping will be limited to shade-loving plants such as ferns. Winters underneath a redwood tree can be shady, but the canopy can also hide clear nights during cold weather, which may also offer protection.. Redwoods can affect the growth of other plants around them by 'bombing' them (dropping chunks of wood and branches on competing plants and your house.)The redwood may become a messy tree, dropping a third of its branchlets each year as it renews them, clogging gutters and drains. But the dropping of foliage and branchlets also acts as a mulch over the ground, and can reduce erosion and some moisture loss. The area around a mature redwood can be littered by huge branches which can pose a hazard to homes and people. But with proper arboriculture practices, can be managed similar to other large evergreen trees that share similar pros and cons. During the heyday of redwood logging falling branches earned a nickname among the loggers as "widowmakers".

This fast-growing tree can be grown as an ornamental specimen in those large parks and gardens that can accommodate its massive size. It has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.

Trees over 200 feet are common, and many are over 300 feet. The current tallest tree is the Hyperion tree, measuring 379.3 feet. The tree was discovered in Redwood National Park during the summer of 2006 by Chris Atkins and Michael Taylor, and is thought to be the world's tallest living organism. The previous record holder was the Stratosphere Giant in Humboldt Redwoods State Park at 370.2 feet (as measured in 2004). Until it fell in March 1991, the "Dyerville Giant" was the record holder. It, too, stood in Humboldt Redwoods State Park and was 372 feet high and estimated to be 1,600 years old. This huge fallen giant has been preserved in the park to allow visitors to walk the trail along its trunk.

WOODWARDIA fimbriata

Giant Chain Fern

Woodwardia fimbriata is a fern species native to western North America from British Columbia through California, including the Sierra Nevada, into Baja California.

It grows in coniferous forests and other moist wooded habitat.

Woodwardia fimbriata has very long fronds, each reaching 1 to 3 meters in length. Its sori are short but broad and are arranged in neat lines, the characteristic that gives the chain ferns their name. The chain shape is visible on both sides of each leaflet.

Woodwardia fimbriata is cultivated as an ornamental plant for traditional and native plant gardens, and in natural landscaping and habitat restoration projects.

BLECHNUM spicant

Hard-Fern, Deer Fern

Blechnum spicant is native to Europe and western North America. Like some other Blechnum it has two types of leaves. The sterile leaves have flat, wavy-margined leaflets 5 to 8 millimeters wide, while the fertile leaves have much narrower leaflets, each with two thick rows of sori on the underside.

B. spicant is hardy and evergreen, growing to 1 ft 8 in. It has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.

IRIS innominata

Del Norte Iris

Iris innominata is a species of iris native to southern Oregon, and California along the north coast and Klamath Ranges in Del Norte County, California.

The leaves are dense and evergreen, up to 20 cm. The flower is typically deep golden yellow with darker veins, although colors may vary. The flower stems are about 12 cm and usually bear 1–2 flowers in spring.

It is on the California Native Plant Society Inventory of Rare and Endangered Plants List 4, Limited distribution (Watch List).

Iris innominata, used in gardens, does best in locations with cool, wet winters and warm, dry summers, in neutral or slightly acidic soil, with good drainage, and sun or partial shade. It is often used for hybridizing with other Iris species. Many plants sold under this name in nurseries are hybrids.

CERCIS occidentalis

Western Redbud, California Redbud. Tree

Cercis occidentalis, syn. Cercis orbiculata – Greene), is a small tree or shrub in the legume family. It is found across the American Southwest, from California to Utah and Arizona.

It is easily recognized when it is in bloom from March to May, when it is covered with small pink to purple flowers.

Cercis occidentalis has thin, shiny brown branches that bear shiny heart-shaped leaves which are light green early in the season and darken as they age. Leaves on plants at higher elevation may turn gold or red as the weather cools.

The showy flowers are bright pink or magenta, and grow in clusters all over the shrub, making the plant very colorful and noticeable in the landscape. The shrub bears 3-inch-long brown legume pods which are very thin and dry.

Indigenous Californians use the twigs of the western redbud to weave baskets, and even prune the shrub to encourage growth of new twigs. The bark provides a faint reddish dye for the finished basketry. The Concow tribe calls the tree dop (Konkow language) or tal'k.

Cercis occidentalis is cultivated as an ornamental plant and tree, for planting in parks and gardens, and as a street tree. It is also used in drought tolerant, native plant, and wildlife gardens.

BED 16

ACER macrophyllum

Bigleaf Maple, Oregon Maple. Deciduous Tree

Acer macrophyllum can grow up to 160.4 ft tall, but more commonly reaches 49–66 ft tall. It is native to western North America, mostly near the Pacific coast, from southernmost Alaska to southern California. Some stands are also found inland in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada mountains of central California, and a tiny population occurs in central Idaho.

The 3.9–5.9 in-long raceme of greenish-yellow flowers appear as the leaves are developing in the spring. It has the largest leaves of any maple, typically 5.9–11.8 in across.

In the more humid parts of its range, as in the Olympic National Park, its bark is covered with epiphytic moss and fern species.

Bigleaf maple can form pure stands on moist soils in proximity to streams, but are generally found within riparian hardwood forests or dispersed, (under or within), relatively open canopies of conifers, mixed evergreens, or oaks (Quercus spp.)

Big leaf Maple has been used for creating syrup but it is not common. This is because Sugar Maple has a higher sugar content. Bigleaf maple is the only commercially important maple of the Pacific Coast region.

The wood is used for applications as diverse as furniture, piano frames and salad bowls. Highly figured wood is not uncommon and is used for veneer, stringed instruments, guitar bodies, and gun stocks.

The wood is primarily used in veneer production for furniture, but is also used in musical instrument production, interior paneling, and other hardwood products; the heartwood is light, reddish-brown, fine-grained, moderately heavy, and moderately hard and strong. Lakwungen First Nations people of Vancouver Island call it the paddle tree and used it to make paddles and spindle wheels.

It is used as browse by black-tailed deer, mule deer, and horses during the sapling stage. A western Oregon study found that 60 percent of bigleaf maple seedlings over 10 inches tall had been browsed by deer, most several times.

The current national champion Bigleaf Maple is located in Marion, Oregon. It has a circumference of 25.4 feet or an average diameter at breast height of about 8.1 feet and is 88 feet tall with a crown spread of 104 feet.

CORNUS ‘Eddie's White Wonder'

Eddie's White Wonder Dogwood. Tree

This unusual hybrid is a cross between our native Western dogwood, Cornus nuttallii, and the Eastern North American species, Cornus florida. The large flowers open in early spring and have broad overlapping bracts (false petals) that are gleaming white and abundant. The tree has a narrow frame and distinctive lax layered branching habit that works well in the garden and shows the blooms to their best advantage. It has shown resistance to dogwood anthracnose, a common foliage disease. It is a selection made near Vancouver, British Columbia.

CORNUS nuttallii

Pacific Dogwood, Mountain Dogwood, Western Dogwood, California Dogwood. Tree

Cornus nuttallii is a species of dogwood native to western North America from the lowlands of southern British Columbia to the mountains of southern California, with an inland population in central Idaho. Cultivated examples are found as far north as Haida Gwaii. It is a small to medium-sized deciduous tree, reaching 10–25 m tall.

Like the related Cornus florida, it is very susceptible to dogwood anthracnose, a disease caused by the fungus Discula destructiva. This has killed many of the larger plants in the wild and also restricted its use as an ornamental tree.

Cornus nuttallii is named after Thomas Nuttall, an English botanist and zoologist who worked in North America in the nineteenth century.

Some Plateau Indian tribes used the bark as a laxative and emetic.

It is the provincial flower of British Columbia. It was once protected by law in the province (in an act which also protected Rhododendron macrophyllum and Trillium ovatum), but this was repealed in 2002.

RHODODENDRON

Evergreen Shrub

Rhododendron is a genus of 1,024 species of woody plants in the heath family (Ericaceae), either evergreen or deciduous, and found mainly in Asia, although it is also widespread throughout the Southern Highlands of the Appalachian Mountains of North America. It is the national flower of Nepal. Most species have showy flowers. Azaleas make up two subgenera of Rhododendron. They are distinguished from "true" rhododendrons by having only five anthers per flower.

Although Rhododendrons had been known since the description of Rhododendron hirsutum by Charles de l'Écluse (Clusius) in the sixteenth century, and were known to classical writers (Magor 1990), and referred to as Chamaerhododendron (low-growing rose tree), the genus was first formally described by Linnaeus in his Species Plantarum in 1753.

Species of the genus Rhododendron are widely distributed between latitudes 80°N and 20°S and are considered Alpine native plants from North America to Europe, Russia, and Asia, and from Greenland to Queensland, Australia and the Solomon Islands. The centers of diversification are in the Himalayas and Malaysia,[37] with the greatest species diversity in the Sino-Himalayan region, Southwest China and northern Burma, from Uttarakhand, Nepal and Sikkim to northwestern Yunnan and western Sichuan and southeastern Tibet, and with other significant areas of diversity in the mountains of Korea, Japan and Taiwan. More than 90% of Rhododendron sensu Chamberlain belong to the Asian subgenera Rhododendron, Hymenanthes and section Tsutsusi. Of the first two of these, the species are predominantly found in the area of the Himalayas and Southwest China (Sino-Himalayan Region).

The 300 Tropical species within the Vereya section of subgenus Rhododendron occupy the Malay archipelago from their presumed Southeast Asian origin to Northern Australia, with 55 known species in Borneo and 164 in New Guinea. The species in New Guinea are native to subalpine moist grasslands at around 3,000 metres above sea level in the Central Highlands.[42] Subgenera Rhododendron and Hymenanthes, together with section Pentanethera of subgenus Pentanethera are also represented to a lesser degree in the Mountainous areas of North America and Western Eurasia. Subgenus Tsutsusi is found in the maritime regions of East Asia (Japan, Korea, Taiwan, East China), but not in North America or Eurasia.

Like other ericaceous plants, most rhododendrons prefer acid soils with a pH of roughly 4.5-5.5; some tropical Vireyas and a few other rhododendron species grow as epiphytes and require a planting mix similar to orchids. Rhododendrons have fibrous roots and prefer well-drained soils high in organic material. In areas with poorly drained or alkaline soils, rhododendrons are often grown in raised beds using media such as composted pine bark.[57] Mulching and careful watering are important, especially before the plant is established.

A new calcium-tolerant stock of rhododendrons (trademarked as 'Inkarho') has been exhibited at the RHS Chelsea Flower Show in London (2011). Individual hybrids of rhododendrons have been grafted on to a rootstock on a single rhododendron plant that was found growing in a chalk quarry. The rootstock is able to grow in calcium-rich soil up to a pH of 7.5.

Rhododendrons are extensively hybridized in cultivation, and natural hybrids often occur in areas where species ranges overlap. There are over 28,000 cultivars of Rhododendron in the International Rhododendron Registry held by the Royal Horticultural Society. Most have been bred for their flowers, but a few are of garden interest because of ornamental leaves and some for ornamental bark or stems. Some hybrids have fragrant flowers–such as the Loderi hybrids, created by crossing R. fortunei and R. griffithianum. Other examples include the PJM hybrids, formed from a cross between Rhododendron carolinianum and Rhododendron dauricum, and named after Peter J. Mezitt of Weston Nurseries, Massachusetts.

Rhododendron species have long been used in traditional medicine. Animal studies and in vitro research has identified possible anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activities which may be due to the antioxidant effects of flavonoids or other phenolic compounds and saponins the plant contains. Xiong et al. have found that the root of the plant is able to reduce the activity of NF-κB in rats.

Some species of rhododendron are poisonous to grazing animals because of a toxin called grayanotoxin in their pollen and nectar. People have been known to become ill from eating honey made by bees feeding on rhododendron and azalea flowers. Xenophon described the odd behaviour of Greek soldiers after having consumed honey in a village surrounded by Rhododendron ponticum during the march of the Ten Thousand in 401 BC. Pompey's soldiers reportedly suffered lethal casualties following the consumption of honey made from Rhododendron deliberately left behind by Pontic forces in 67 BC during the Third Mithridatic War. Later, it was recognized that honey resulting from these plants has a slightly hallucinogenic and laxative effect. The suspect rhododendrons are Rhododendron ponticum and Rhododendron luteum (formerly Azalea pontica), both found in northern Asia Minor.A brief documented video of this occurring in the modern day involves a group of men in Nepal foraging for this affected honey can be found here: http://eupterrafoundation.com/hallucinogenic-honey. Eleven similar cases have been documented in Istanbul, Turkey during the 1980s.[69] Rhododendron is extremely toxic to horses, with some animals dying within a few hours of ingesting the plant, although most horses tend to avoid it if they have access to good forage. The effects of R. ponticum was mentioned in the 2009 film Sherlock Holmes as a proposed way to arrange a fake execution.[70] It was also mentioned in the third episode of Season 2 of BBC's Sherlock (TV series), and has been speculated to have been a part of Sherlock's fake death scheme.

Rhododendron arboreum (lali guransh) is the national flower of Nepal. R. ponticum is the state flower of Indian-administered Kashmir and Pakistan-controlled Kashmir. Rhododendron niveum is the state tree of Sikkim in India. Rhododendron is also the state tree of the state of Uttarakhand, India. Pink Rhododendron (Rhododendron campanulatum) is the State Flower of Himachal Pradesh, India.

Rhododendron maximum, the most widespread rhododendron of the Appalachian Mountains, is the state flower of West Virginia, and is in the Flag of West Virginia.

Rhododendron macrophyllum, a widespread rhododendron of the Pacific Northwest, is the state flower of Washington.

In Joyce's Ulysses, rhododendrons play an important role in Leopold and Molly's early courtship: Molly remembers them in her soliloquy - "the sun shines for you he said the day we were lying among the rhododendrons on Howth head in the grey tweed suit and his straw hat the day I got him to propose to me". Jasper Fforde a British author, also uses rhododendron as a motif throughout many of his published books. See Thursday Next series, and Shades of Grey. Amongst the Zomi tribes in India and Myanmar, "Rhododendrons" called "Ngeisok" is used in a poetic manner to signify a lady.

The rhododendron is the national flower of Nepal, where the flower is considered edible and enjoyed for its sour taste. The pickled flower can last for months and the flower juice is also marketed. The flower, fresh or dried, is added to fish curry in the belief that it will soften the bones. The juice of rhododendron flower is used to make a squash called burans (named after the flower) in the hilly regions of Uttarakhand. It is admired for its distinctive flavor and color.

VACCINIUM ovatum

Evergreen Huckleberry, Winter Huckleberry, California Huckleberry.

Vaccinium ovatum is a species of flowering shrub and is a small to medium sized evergreen shrub native to the Western Pacific Coast of the United States and coastal British Columbia.

Vaccinium ovatum is a true huckleberry plant, growing well in shade or sun and thriving in acidic soils. Not needing much sun, the plant has a wide variety of forest homes; it is often seen sprouting out of old coast redwood stumps or dense brambles of other forest growths. The shiny, alternately arranged leaves are 2 to 3 centimeters long and about a centimeter wide with finely serrated edges. During the summer the plant produces round, edible black berries up to a centimeter in diameter.

Traditionally huckleberries were sought after and collected by many Native American tribes along the Pacific coast in the region.

Vaccinium ovatum is grown as an ornamental plant for horticultural use by specialty wholesale, retail, and botanic garden native plant nurseries. The plant is successful in natural landscape and native plant palette style, and habitat gardens and public sustainable landscape and restoration projects that are similar to its habitat conditions.

SMILACINA stellata

Star-flowered, Starry, Little False Solomon's Seal, False Solomon's Seal, Starry False Lily-of-the-Valley. Herbaceous Perennial

Maianthemum stellatum (syn. Smilacina stellata) is a species of flowering plant, native across North America generally from Alaska to California to North Carolina to Newfoundland. It has been reported from every Canadian province and territory except Nunavut, and from every US state except Hawaii, Arkansas, Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi, Georgia, South Carolina and Florida. It is an ever-changing seasonal plant with little white buds in the spring, followed by delicate starry flowers, then green-and-black striped berries and finally deep red berries in the fall.

It is a woodland herbaceous perennial plant, smaller than its close relative M. racemosum. For comparison, M. stellatum has smaller, more open inflorescences, flowers with stamens shorter rather than longer than the petals, and somewhat narrower and more curved leaves (image gallery). Both species show the characteristic zigzag of the stem between the alternate leaves. True Solomon's seal (Polygonatum sp) has a similar overall appearance, but the flowers hang from the stem underneath the leaves, rather than forming a terminal cluster.

BED 17

AESCULUS californica

California Buckeye, California Horse-Chestnut. Deciduous Tree

Aesculus californica is a species of buckeye native to California and southwestern Oregon.

It is a large shrub or small tree, up to 13–39 ft tall, with gray bark often coated with lichens and mosses. It typically is multi-trunked, with a crown as broad as it is high. Trees are long lived, with an estimated lifespan between 250-280 (300 maximum) years.

The flowers are sweet-scented, white to pale pink, borne on erect panicles 6–8 in long. The seeds are poisonous.

A. californica has adapted to its native Mediterranean climate by growing during the wet late winter and spring months and entering dormancy in the dry summer months, though those growing in coastal regions tend to hold on to their leaves until mid-autumn.

A. californica is widely distributed in California, growing along the central coast and in the lower elevations of the Sierra Nevada and Cascade Range. Its range extends to the foothills of the Siskiyou Mountains in the Rogue Valley in Oregon.

It is found growing in a wide range of conditions from crowded, moist, semi-shaded canyon bottoms to dry south-facing slopes and hilltops. In the coastal ranges north of Big Sur it is found growing alone on slopes, or intermingled with valley oak (Quercus lobata), Oregon oak (Q. garryana), coast live oak (Q. agrifolia) and California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica). In the foothills of the Sierra Nevada, A. californica can be found standing alone in grassland at the lowest elevations, intermingled in blue oak woodlands at intermediate elevations, and in mixed evergreen forests of black oak (Q. kelloggii), gray pine (Pinus sabiniana), ponderosa pine (P. ponderosa) and interior live oak (Q. wislizeni) as it nears the limit of its range.

Local native American tribes, including the Pomo, Yokut, and Luiseño, used the poisonous nuts to stupefy schools of fish in small streams to make them easier to catch. The bark, leaves, and fruits contain the neurotoxic glycoside aesculin, which causes hemolysis of red blood cells. Buckeye also makes a good fireboard for bowdrill or hand drill.

Native groups occasionally used the nuts as a food supply when the acorn supply was sparse; after boiling and leaching the toxin out of the nut meats for several days, they could be ground into a meal similar to that made from acorns. The nectar of the flowers is toxic to the Asian/European honeybee, so the trees should not be planted near apiaries. When the shoots are small and leaves are new, they are lower in toxins and are grazed by livestock and wildlife. The flowers are a rich nectar source for many species of butterflies.

It is used as an ornamental plant for its striking leaf buds, lime green foliage, fragrant white flowers, red-brown foliage in mid to late summer, and architectural silver branches through fall.

The tree acts as a soil binder, which prevents erosion in hilly regions.

CORNUS ‘Eddie's White Wonder'

Eddie's White Wonder Dogwood. Deciduous Tree

A hybrid between Cornus nuttallii × Cornus florida. Utility friendly tree. Needs ample water. Has fragrant flower.

A Cornus nuttallii in C. Hot Springs is registered as a California Big Tree. It measures 61 feet high, with a trunk circumference of 27 inches and a crown spread of 28 feet.

BERBERIS aquifolium

Oregon Grape, Oregon Grape Holly.

Mahonia aquifolium is a species of flowering plant in the family Berberidaceae, native to western North America. It is an evergreen shrub growing to 3 ft tall by 5 ft wide, with pinnate leaves consisting of spiny leaflets, and dense clusters of yellow flowers in early spring, followed by dark bluish-black berries.

"Oregon holly-grape" as a vernacular name for any species of mahonia. It also occasionally appears in print as Oregongrape. There are several common species of Oregon-grape, many with numerous cultivated varieties (cultivars). Among these are tall Oregon grape (Mahonia aquifolium); Cascade, low, dull, or dwarf Oregon grape (M. nervosa); and creeping Oregon grape (M. repens).

Some authors place Mahonia in the barberry genus, Berberis. The Oregon-grape is not related to true grapes, but gets its name from the purple clusters of berries whose color and slightly dusted appearance are reminiscent of grapes. .

Mahonia aquifolium is a native plant in the North American West from Southeast Alaska to Northern California, and eastern Alberta to southern Colorado, often occurring in the understory of Douglas-fir forests (although other forest types contain the species) and in brushlands in the Cascades, Rockies, and northern Sierras.

M. aquifolium is a popular subject in shady or woodland plantings. It is valued for its striking foliage and flowers, which often appear before those of other shrubs. It is resistant to summer drought, tolerates poor soils, and does not create excessive leaf litter. Its berries attract birds.

Numerous cultivars and hybrids have been developed, of which the following have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit:

M. × wagneri 'Pinnacle'[14] (M. aquifolium × M. pinnata) 'Apollo'

The small purplish-black fruits, which are quite tart and contain large seeds, are included in smaller quantities in the traditional diets of Pacific Northwest aboriginal peoples, mixed with Salal or another sweeter fruit. Today they are sometimes used to make jelly, alone or mixed with salal. Oregon grape juice can be fermented to make wine, similar to European barberry wine folk traditions, although it requires an unusually high amount of sugar. The inner bark of the larger stems and roots of Oregon-grape yield a yellow dye; the berries give purple dye. As the leaves of Oregon-grape are holly-like and resist wilting, the foliage is sometimes used by florists for greenery and a small gathering industry has been established in the Pacific Northwest.

Some Plateau Indian tribes used Oregon-grape to treat dyspepsia.

Certain extracts from Mahonia aquifolium may be useful in the treatment of inflammatory skin diseases such as eczema and psoriasis, although side effects include rash and a burning sensation when applied.

Recent studies indicate that M. aquifolium contains a specific multidrug resistance pump inhibitor (MDR inhibitor) named 5'-methoxyhydnocarpin (5'-MHC) which works to decrease bacterial resistance to berberine in vitro.

Oregon grape is the state flower of Oregon.[24]

HEUCHERA maxima

Island Alum Root, Channel Island Coral Bells, Jill of the Rocks. Evergreen Perennial

Heuchera maxima is endemic to the four northern Channel Islands of California, within Channel Islands National Park. It grows on canyon cliffs in coastal sage scrub habitats.

Heuchera maxima is a rhizomatous perennial herb growing a broad patch of large, rounded, multilobed green leaves with long petioles and a fringe of hairs along the edges. It grows 1–3 feet in height.

It produces an erect inflorescence up to 24 in tall, with many clusters of hairy, glandular flowers. Each flower is rounded with fleshy white or pink lobes and tiny petals curling away from the center. The protruding stamens are tipped with large anthers.

Heuchera maxima is also cultivated as an ornamental plant for traditional, drought tolerant, native plant, and wildlife gardens. It prefers part shade, including as a groundcover in dry shade conditions under oaks.

HEUCHERA "Wendy"

Wendy Coral Bells. Evergreen Perennial

Heuchera 'Wendy' is the result of a cross between the Alum Root (Heuchera maxima) and the Coral Bell (Heuchera sanguinea). In the summer, the delicate bright pink flowers of this variety stand on slim 3 foot tall pink stalks. It can grow to about 2 feet by 2 feet. It does best in a shady location and is hardy to about 10 degrees F. Introduced by John Dourley of the Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden in 1984. Although not extremely long lived, this is a wonderful choice worthy of replanting every 3-5 years. Plants are attractive to hummingbirds. In their book "Heuchera and Heucherellas: Coral Bells and Foamy Bells" Timber Press 2005 authors Dan Heims and Grahame Ware note that Linnaeus named Heuchera for Johann Heinrich von Heucher, professor of medicine and Botany at Wittenberg University. They further note that the name Heuchera should be pronounced following the person's name it commemorates so the proper pronunciation is HOY-ker-uh.

PHYSOCARPUS capitatus Prostrate Form

Ninebark. Deciduous Shrub

Physocarpus capitatus 'Tilden Park' is a prostrate form of the native ninebark from San Bruno Mountain. Makes a good groundcover about 3 ft. tall and spreading widely. Deciduous stems sprout beautiful green foliage with white flower clusters in spring. Sun to light shade with summer water, but will tolerate dryish conditions once established.

RHAMNUS californica ‘Mound San Bruno'

Coffeeberry. Evergreen Shrub

Rhamnus californica 'Mound San Bruno' is more compact than the species, growing to 4-6 feet tall and twice as wide as it is tall. Originally thought to make a small mound to only 3 feet tall however the largest plant that we know of has grown to 6 feet tall and is nearly 14 feet wide. The greenish-white flowers are inconspicuous but they do produce many dark red, almost black, berries. This selection was made by Roger Raiche. Recent nomenclatural changes have given rise to a name change for this plant to Frangula californica - we continued to list it as Rhamnus californica until this name has wider recognition.

SPIRAEA douglasii

Hardhack, Hardhack Steeplebush, Douglas' Spirea, Douglassspirea, Steeplebush, Rose Spirea.

Spiraea douglasii is native to western North America from Alaska across southwestern Canada and the Pacific Northwest. It occurs most often in riparian habitat types, such as swamps, streambanks, bogs and mudflats. It grows among sedges, horsetails, wild blueberries, and other swamp flora. The plant is a woolly shrub growing 1 to 2 meters tall from rhizomes, forming dense riverside thickets. Large clusters of small pink flowers form spires in early summer, later turning dark and persisting. The leaves are toothed toward the tips. The undersides are whitish with prominent veins.

This plant is used as an ornamental in landscaping, where it grows best in sunny, moist places.

VANCOUVERIA hexandra

White Inside-out Flower. Perennial Herb

Vancouveria hexandra is in the barberry family Berberidaceae. It is found in Washington, Oregon and California and is a common understory herb in moist, shady Douglas Fir forests. This plant grows to 12 inches with compound leaves in triplets and is usually found in dense patches. It gets its name from the small delicate white flowers with petal-like sepals that are swept back abruptly as if in the process of turning inside out. The genus honors George Vancouver, the 18th-century explorer of the Pacific Northwest.

RHODODRENDRON occidentale

Western Azalea. Deciduous Shrub

Rhododendron occidentale is one of two deciduous Rhododendron species native to western North America (the other is Rhododendron albiflorum). The western azalea is known to occur as far north as Lincoln and Douglas Counties in Oregon and as far south as the mountains of San Diego county. Typically found in the coastal ranges of western North America, it also grows in the Cascade and Sierra Nevada mountain ranges, but is not known east of them.

Rhododendron occidentale is a shrub growing to 5 m tall. The leaves are deciduous, 3–9 cm long and 1–3 cm broad. The flowers are 3.5–5 cm diameter, with five lobes on the corolla; color varies from white to pink, often with a yellow blotch.

There is considerable diversity in the form and appearance of this species, with genetic diversity seeming to reach its highest level along the coast in the vicinity of the border between Oregon and California. It is tolerant of serpentine soils to the point that serpentine soils (along with surface water) can be used as a sign of its presence in southern Oregon. For this reason, it is a part of the unique plant community found in the serpentine barrens of the Siskiyou Mountains, along with Darlingtonia californica and Cypripedium californicum. It is usually found in wetlands although, like other rhododendrons, it does not grow with its roots submerged in water. It prefers both more moisture and more sunlight than Rhododendron macrophyllum, an evergreen rhododendron with a similar range.

Rhododendron occidentale was described by explorers in western North America in the nineteenth century. At one time, the various geographic races were each classified as separate species. Seed was sent to Veitch Nursery in England in 1850 by William Lobb.

The western azalea was an early contributor in the development of deciduous hybrid azaleas in Great Britain, such as the Exbury azaleas.

During the twentieth century it has been the subject of ongoing plant exploration as at least three generations of rhododendron enthusiasts have sought out unusual forms for use in the garden and to record for science. Many of those forms are now conserved in the Smith-Mossman Western Azalea Garden at Lake Wilderness Arboretum in Maple Valley, Washington state, USA.

RIBES aureum

Golden Currant.

Ribes aureum is a species in the genus Ribes. It is native to Canada, most of the United States (except the southeast) and northern Mexico. The species Ribes odoratum is closely related, and sometimes named Ribes aureum var. villosum.

Ribes aureum is a small to medium-sized deciduous shrub, 6.6–9.8 ft tall. Leaves are green, shaped similarly to gooseberry leaves, turning red in autumn.

The plant blooms in spring with racemes of conspicuous golden yellow flowers, often with a pronounced fragrance similar to that of cloves or vanilla. Flowers may also be shades of cream to reddish, and are borne in clusters of up to 15. The shrub produces berries about 1 centimeter in diameter from an early age. Ripe fruits, amber yellow to black in color, are edible. The flowers are also edible.

Varieties include:
Ribes aureum var. aureum (< 3,000 ft; western U.S.)
Ribes aureum var. gracillimum (< 3,000 ft; California coastal ranges)
Ribes aureum var. villosum – clove currant (syn: Ribes odoratum; west of Mississippi River)

Ribes aureum is widely cultivated as an ornamental plant, in traditional, native plant, drought tolerant, and wildlife gardens, and natural landscaping projects. Unlike some other species of currants, Ribes aureum is in the remarkably drought-tolerant group of Ribes. Named cultivars have been introduced also

Golden currant is also planted for the edible berries. Although flowers are hermaphrodite, the yield is greatly benefited by cross-pollination.

The berries were used for food, and other plant parts for medicine, by various Native American groups across its range in North America.

This currant species is susceptible to white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola), a fungus which attacks and kills pines, so it is sometimes eradicated from forested areas where the fungus is active to prevent its spread.

RIBES sanguineum

Flowering Currant, Red-flowering Currant.

Ribes sanguineum is native to western coastal North America from central British Columbia south to central California.

It is a deciduous shrub growing to 7 ft tall and broad. The bark is dark brownish-grey with prominent paler brown lenticels. The leaves are 2–7 cm long and broad, palmately lobed with five lobes; when young in spring, they have a strong resinous scent. The flowers are produced in early spring at the same time as the leaves emerge, on racemes 3–7 cm long of 5–30 flowers; each flower is 5–10 mm diameter, with five red or pink petals. The fruit is a dark purple oval berry 1 cm long, edible but with an insipid taste.

Ribes sanguineum was introduced into cultivation by 19th century Scottish botanist David Douglas. It and its varieties and cultivars are popular garden shrubs, valued for their brightly colored and scented flowers in early spring, and birds and habitat support.

Numerous cultivars have been selected with flowers ranging from white to dark red.

BED 18

MYRICA californica

California Bayberry, California Wax Myrtle, Pacific Wax Myrtle, Gale californica, Morella californica. Evergreen Shrub.

Myrica californica is native to the Pacific Ocean coast of North America from Vancouver Island south to California as far south as the Long Beach area.

It grows to 2-10 m tall, and has serrated, sticky green leaves 4-13 cm long and 0.7-3 cm broad, which emit a spicy scent on warm days. The flower's inflorescence is arranged in a spike 0.6-3 cm long, in range of colors from green to red. The fruit is a wrinkled purple berry 4-6.5 mm diameter, with a waxy coating, hence the common name wax myrtle. This species has root nodules containing nitrogen-fixing microorganisms, allowing it to grow in relatively poor soils.

It grows well on cool, moist coastlines and can be planted in lines as a seaside windbreak. The bark and leaves have historically been used on occasion for gastrointestinal ailments. The most active chemical is apparently the glycoside myricinic acid, which is related to saponin. The plant tissues are also high in tannins. The wax may be extracted from the fruit and made into candles and soap; however, this species produces much less wax than other bayberries, and so is rarely used for this purpose.

BERBERIS nevinii

Nevin's Barberry.

Berberis nevinii is a very rare and attractive California native shrub that reaches to 6-10 feet tall by as wide with rigid branches covered with gray-blue foliage composed of 3-5 leathery spear-shaped prickly leaflets that are tinged pink in new growth. The bright yellow flowers appear in clusters at the leaf axils from late winter to mid spring and are followed in summer by bunches of translucent spherical red berries that are quite attractive to birds.

Plant in sun or light shade in a well-drained soil with little to occasional irrigation. Hardy to 0° F or a bit less. Seems resistant to deer predation and is oak root rot resistant. This plant is great as an individual specimen for covering dry slopes, espaliered on a wall or as impenetrable untrimmed hedge.

Its natural habitat was in riparian areas within the chaparral, foothill woodland and coastal sage scrub communities throughout southern California in Los Angeles, Riverside, and San Bernardino counties. It is included in the CNPS Inventory of Rare and Endangered Plants on list 1B.1 (rare, threatened, or endangered in CA and elsewhere) and is It is listed by the State of California as Endangered (Jan 1987) and by the Federal Government as Endangered (Oct 13,1998) . There have been a total of 34 occurrences of Berberis nevinii reported in southern California, 5 of which have been or are presumed extirpated and 7 considered to have been introduced. Total number of individuals is estimated at 500, with approximately half of those as naturally occurring individuals. In addition, the majority of occurrences are composed of only one to few individuals, with little to no reproduction observed. This plant was thought to be introduced into cultivation in California by Theodore Payne around 1920. Asa Gray described this plant in 1895 based on a collection made by Reverend Joseph Cook Nevin (1835-1913) in 1892 on the east side of the San Fernando Valley north of Los Angeles. The specific epithet honors Reverend Nevin, who was a linguist and botanical collector and who also collected on the Santa Barbara Channel Islands with William Scrugham Lyon who Asa Gray honored in the naming of Lyonothamnus floribundus. This plant is listed as Odostemon nevinii on the plant list but The Jepson Flora Project and the online Flora of North America continue to lists it as Berberis nevinii and prior to this it was known as Mahonia nevinii.

ARCTOSTAPHYLOS ‘Sentinel'

Sentinel Manzanita. Evergreen Shrub

Arctostaphylos densiflora 'Sentinel' is a 3 to 4 foot manzanita (that can be pruned up to 8 ft. with some work) and is a very floriferous manzanita that was part of the hybrid swarm of manzanitas in and around Sonoma County, California.

'Sentinel' is like its cousins 'Harmony' and 'Howard McMinn' manzanita but grayer. Sentinel' manzanita will tolerate heavy, rich soils but much happier in sandy loam or sand and is more drought tolerant than the other Arctostaphylos densiflora cultivars. One of the best performers in beach sand, also is known as very clay tolerant. Like most other manzanitas does not tolerate direct salt spray. BUT, it has survived in Los Osos where other plants showed salt spray damage.

'Sentinel' has red bark and seems to be one of the faster manzanitas. Ours has grown to full size in 2 years. Fantastic as a low hedge for perimeter of a city yard. Beautiful next to the sidewalk, particularly brickwork, or as foundation planting. Also works well as a stand alone specimen in a small yard.

One of the best plants for beneficial insects and hummingbirds.

Arctostaphylos densiflora Sentinel Manzanita tolerates sand and clay; is great for a bird garden and a butterfly garden; and the fruit is edible.

ARCTOSTAPHYLOS refugioensis

Mansanita, Refugio Mansanita. Shrub

Arctostaphylos refugioensis is endemic to Santa Barbara County, California, where it can be found along the immediate coastline, including the vicinity of Refugio State Beach, and into the Santa Ynez Mountains of the northwestern Transverse Ranges.

Arctostaphylos refugioensis is a plant of the coastal sage and chaparral on sandstone soils. This is a shrub reaching at least 6.6 ft. tall and known to exceed 13 ft. in maximum height.

Its branches are covered in long, gland-tipped bristles and a dense foliage of oblong greenish to deep red leaves. Each leaf is dull, waxy, and often bristly in texture, smooth or toothed along the edges, and up to 4.5 centimeters long.

The shrub flowers in winter in inflorescences of cone-shaped manzanita flowers each up to a centimeter long. The fruit is a spherical to oval red drupe with a pointed end, measuring at least a centimeter long.

ARCTOSTAPHYLOS glauca

Manzanita, Bigberry Manzanita. Shrub

Arctostaphylos glauca grows in the chaparral and woodland of coastal and inland hills.

Arctostaphylos glauca is a large shrub varying in size from one to well over six meters in height. Individuals growing in desert regions tend to be shorter than those on the coast. Leaves are light gray-green, somewhat waxy, oval in shape to nearly round, and smooth or toothed along the edges. They are up to five centimeters long and four wide and grow on short petioles about a centimeter long.

The inflorescence holds hanging clusters of narrow urn-shaped white flowers. The edible fruit is a round or egg-shaped drupe 12 to 15 millimeters wide. It is light red in color and has a thick pulp covered in a tough, sticky coat. The shrub reproduces by seed and by layering. Seeds require exposure to fire before they can germinate.

It is a long-lived species, reaching 100 years of age or more, though it does not begin to fruit until it is around 20 years old. The shrub is allelopathic, inhibiting the growth of other plants in its understory when rain leaches toxic arbutin and phenolic acids from its foliage.

FREMONTODENDRON decumbens

Pine Hill Flannelbush

Fremontodendron cal. decumben is extremely rare both in the wild and in cultivation. The most compact form of Flannelbush, this small shrub reaches only a couple feet tall and several feet wide, making it a showy choice for a garden that can't accommodate the much larger varieties more commonly available. Be forewarned - it is not an especially easy plant to grow, and needs very good drainage.

PRUNUS ilicifolia

Hollyleaf Cherry, Evergreen Cherry, Islay. Evergreen Tree

Prunus ilicifolia produces edible cherries, with shiny and spiny toothed leaves similar in appearance to holly. It is native to the chaparral areas of coastal California and northern Baja California, as well as the desert chaparral areas of the Mojave desert.

Holly-leaved cherry grows 8 to 30 feet tall, with thick, alternate leaves 1 to 2 inches in length. It has small white flowers growing in clusters, similar in appearance to most members of the rose family, Rosaceae, flowering from March to May. The purple to black fruit is sweet,with a very thick pulp around a large single stone (drupe).

The plant is prized for cultivation, showy and easily grown from seed, and has been cultivated for hundreds of years (or more) as a food source, and tolerates twice yearly pruning when often used as a hedge. The plant likes full sun, loose open soil (porous), and tolerates drought conditions well, but needs regular watering when young. Bees are attracted to it.

Native Americans fermented the fruit into a drink used to get intoxicated. This is the only species of the genus Prunus native to the Santa Monica Mountains that divide the Los Angeles basin from the San Fernando Valley, California.

The caterpillars of the pale swallowtail (Papilio eurymedon) feed on this and other members of the riparian woodland plant community.

VITIS californica

California Wild Grape. Deciduous Vine

Vitis californica is a wild grape species native to most of California and southwestern Oregon.

The California wild grape grows along streams and rivers and thrives in damp areas; however, like most other native California plants it can withstand periods of dry conditions.

Vitis californica is a deciduous vine which can grow to over 33 ft in length. It climbs on other plants or covers the ground with twisted, woody ropes of vine covered in green leaves. In the fall the leaves turn many shades of orange and yellow.

Bunches of small and often sour but edible purple grapes hang from the vines in autumn. The grapes provide an important food source for a variety of wild animals, especially birds, and the foliage provides thick cover. The grapes are a common sight along the banks of the Sacramento River.

The wild grape is strong and robust, and viticulturists worldwide often use it as rootstock for their wine grapes. In some areas where the plant is not native it has the capacity to become a noxious weed.

Vitis californica is cultivated as an ornamental plant. The interesting shape and color of the leaves and the lush, trainable vines make this species an attractive garden plant. This vine is commonly used in native plant gardens, where once established it thrives without summer water.

The cultivar 'Roger's Red' (named for noted horticulturist Roger Raiche) turns brilliant red in fall and is a hybrid with a wine grape, Vitis vinifera Alicante Bouschet. The cultivar 'Walker Ridge' turns yellow in the autumn.

VITIS californica ‘Roger's Red'

Roger's California Grape. Deciduous Vine

Vitis 'Roger's Red' is a deciduous grape native to central California. The dull green and gray leaves of this cultivar are transformed into great draperies of rich, scarlet red leaves in autumn. The edible fruit is small and purple – the juice is very tasty but it has a large seed and a bitter skin so not one you eat very much of. This vine can grow 25-40 ft. tall in sun or shade. It is frost hardy and has low water needs. Insignificant flowers. Expect rapid growth. This selection made by Roger Raiche, who came across this unusual red specimen while driving in Sonoma County in 1983. This plant has been quite popular because it is both visually attractive, its fruit attractive to wildlife and because it was thought to be a native California plant; however recent DNA studies on this plant indicate that it is not a pure Vitis californica selection, as originally thought, but is a hybrid between our native grape and Vitis vinifera, the grape of commerce.