Plainfield Garden Club

Member: Everest, Mrs. Raymond W. (Ruth Moore) '32

1929 Treasurer Book Active $5.00 (Mrs. Everest's join date is probably incorrect. Could only go to Associate membership after 5 years.)
1930, 1931 Treasurer Book Associate

1932 Treasurer Book: Associate Member Everest, Mrs. R. W Resigned

1932 Directory* Address: 960 Woodland Avenue
* = This directory is not dated but presumed to be from the year 1932
NOTE: Mrs. Raymond W. Everest, 960 Woodland Avenue has been crossed off by hand.
NOTE: Mrs. Raymond W. Everest was listed as an "Associate Member"

Vaccum Oil Company Board of Directors Raymond W. Everest

Identifier: di_03426
Title: Vacuum Oil Company Board of Directors
Description: Left to right: Raymond W. Everest, George P. Whaley, Charles C. Campbell, Edward Prizer, Charles E. Bedford, Walter M. McGee, Charles E. Arnott, Charles M. Everest
City: Rochester
State: New York
Country: United States
Date: ca. 1916
Source: ExxonMobil Historical Collection
Publisher: Dolph Briscoe Center for American History
Rights: Exxon Mobil Corporation/Dolph Briscoe Center for American History
Box: 2.207/J67
Folder: 3
Format: print 8 in X 10 in
Subject Petroleum industry

NOTE: McGee, Mrs. Walter M. '22, 101 Rockview Avenue, North Plainfield (1922), member of the Plainfield Garden Club


Hiriam Bond Everest

Matthew Ewing and Hiram Bond Everest founded Vacuum Oil Company in 1866 upon patenting a new method of distilling kerosene in a vacuum that produced a high-quality lubricant.


Standard Oil Co. purchases a three-quarters interest in Vacuum Oil Company for $200,000. As a lubricants pioneer, Vacuum Oil introduces a number of popular products, including the revolutionary Gargoyle 600-W Steam Cylinder

resouce: ExxonMobil

Gargoyle Arctic engine


The Standard Oil Trust moves its headquarters to 26 Broadway, New York City. The nine-story office building becomes a landmark.

The same year, Vacuum develops Gargoyle Arctic engine oils for newly designed generators and motors that operate at speeds of up to 1,000 rpm

Wright Brothers


The Wright brothers, Wilbur and Orvillle, use both Jersey Standard fuel and Mobiloil (Vacuum) lubricants for their historic first flight at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina

Landmark US Supreme Court decision


Following a landmark U.S. Supreme Court decision, Standard Oil breaks up into 34 unrelated companies, including Jersey Standard, Socony and Vacuum Oil.

The year also marks the first time Jersey Standard's sales of kerosene are surpassed by gasoline, a product that in the early days had often been discarded as a nuisance.

Paulsboro, NJ refinery


First commercial unit in a cat-cracking refinery begins operation at Socony-Vacuum's Paulsboro, New Jersey, refinery. The unit used a process developed by French scientist Eugene P. Houdry with the financial backing of Socony-Vacuum. The process added a clay-like catalyst to the cracking process to boost gasoline yields and octane rating.

Mobil's Predecessor Companies

The Development of Mobil's Predecessor Companies

The 1931 merger of Standard Oil Company of New York (Socony) and Vacuum Oil Company created Mobil. Of Mobil's two progenitors, Socony was the larger and more generalized oil company, while Vacuum's expertise lay in the production of high-quality machine lubricants. Vacuum got its start in 1866 when Matthew Ewing, a carpenter and part-time inventor in Rochester, New York, devised a new method of distilling kerosene from oil using a vacuum. The process itself proved to be no great discovery, but Ewing's partner, Hiram Bond Everest, who had invested $20 in seed capital in the project, noticed that its gummy residue was suitable for lubrication, and the two men took out a patent on behalf of the Vacuum Oil Company in 1866. Ewing sold his interest in Vacuum to Everest shortly thereafter. The heavy Vacuum oil was soon much in demand by manufacturers of steam engines and the new internal-combustion engines. In 1869 Everest patented Gargoyle 600-W Steam Cylinder Oil, which was still in use into the 1990s, and the firm continued to prosper.

Within a decade Vacuum had expanded sufficiently to catch the eye of John D. Rockefeller's Standard Oil Company. Beginning in 1872, Standard had bought up scores of refineries and marketing companies around the country, and in 1879 it added Vacuum Oil to its list of conquests, paying $200,000 for 75 percent of Vacuum's stock. By that date Standard Oil had achieved an effective monopoly on the oil business in the United States. Despite its small size, Vacuum was given latitude by the Standard management, who respected its excellent products and the acumen of Hiram Everest and his son, C.M. Everest.

The Everests pursued an independent course in foreign sales. As early as 1885 Vacuum had opened affiliates in Montreal and in Liverpool, where its staff included 19 salespeople, and within the next decade the company added branches in Toronto, Milan, and Bombay. Vacuum became the leader among Standard's companies in the use of efficient marketing and sales techniques, packaging its lubricants in attractive tins, pursuing customers with a well-organized, efficient sales team, and, when necessary, bringing in a lubricants specialist to help customers choose the oil best suited to their needs. Company oils were made according to a secret formula, and by 1911 the Vacuum marketers had made the name Mobil oil known on five continents. In the United States, Vacuum products were sold nationwide by the Standard chain of distributors and in the Northeast by Vacuum's own agents.

In 1906 Vacuum added a second refinery to its original Rochester plant, and in 1910 Standard Oil Company of New Jersey (Jersey Standard), the holding company for the Standard interests, invested $500,000 to enable its big Bayonne, New Jersey, refinery to manufacture some of Vacuum's lubricants for export. In 1911 the Standard companies were ordered to break up by the U.S. Supreme Court, and among the 34 splinters were Vacuum Oil and Standard Oil Company of New York (Socony). Socony, the second largest of the newly independent companies, had been created along with Jersey Standard in 1882, both as a legal domicile for Standard's New York assets and to serve as the administrative and banking center for the entire Standard Oil Trust. William Rockefeller, John D. Rockefeller's younger brother and longtime business partner, remained the president of Socony from its inception until 1911.

From the first it was planned that in addition to serving as Standard's headquarters, Socony would handle the great bulk of the trust's growing foreign sales. It took over from Standard Oil Company of Ohio ownership of the merchant firm of Meissner, Ackermann & Company, with offices in New York and Hamburg and agents around Europe. At first Standard relied exclusively on such brokers for its foreign business, but as the years went on the company set up its own foreign subsidiaries around the world. By 1910 the Standard subsidiaries had usurped almost all of the foreign sales, with Socony's affiliates handling about 30 percent, while Vacuum Oil, which also had built a small but widespread sales group, contributed 6 percent to the total. In addition to the sales it made itself, Socony also bought and then resold all Standard products leaving New York, and even for a time those shipped out of California to Asia. Bolstered by its double role, Socony's sales were among the largest of any Standard company, and as Standard's official overseas representative, it became a familiar name in many countries.

Another of Socony's important functions, especially prior to 1899, when Jersey Standard began assuming such duties, was to administer most of the Standard group's internal affairs. In the New York City office building at 26 Broadway were housed not only Socony's own corporate leaders, but also the small group of men who ran Standard Oil. Some individuals, such as William Rockefeller, served on both boards, and the interplay between Socony and the Standard group was intimate and complex. Socony also assumed banking functions for the group. After 1899 Jersey Standard became the sole holding company for all of the Standard interests, but Socony continued much as before in its various key roles.

Regrouping Following Supreme Court Ruling in 1911

By the time of the dissolution of Standard in 1911, Socony had established its position in Europe and Africa and built a thriving business in Asia as well. China became an important market for Socony. Socony eventually built a network of subsidiaries from Japan to Turkey that by 1910 was handling nearly 50 percent of the kerosene sold in Asia. In the United States, Socony's five refineries turned out kerosene, gasoline, and naphtha for sale in New York and New England, through jobbers and a growing number of the new roadside stores known as "gas stations."

In 1911 the Supreme Court upheld a lower court's conviction of Jersey Standard for violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act and ordered the organization dissolved. Each of the 34 new companies created by the order was allotted varying proportions of the three basic oil assets–crude production, refining, and marketing–but neither Socony nor Vacuum Oil ended up with any sources of crude. Both companies were strong marketers and refiners, and both became occupied by the search for enough crude oil to keep their plants and salesmen busy. Socony's need for its own crude supplies was greater since it produced a large volume of oil-based fuels and lubricants, whereas Vacuum's business was more limited in both volume and variety. Socony set out to secure ownership of its own wells.

At that point in the history of U.S. oil production, the natural area in which to explore was Texas, Louisiana, and Oklahoma. In 1918 Socony bought 45 percent of Magnolia Petroleum Company, which owned wells, pipelines, and a refinery in Beaumont, Texas, and did most of its marketing in Texas and the Southwest. After buying the rest of Magnolia in 1925, Socony purchased General Petroleum Corporation of California to help supply its large market in Asia. Then it entered the Midwest for the first time with a 1930 purchase of White Eagle Oil & Refining Company, with gas stations in 11 states. Socony now needed even more crude oil to supply these additional market outlets, and like most of the other big international oil concerns, Socony looked to the Middle East.

World War I had demonstrated the crucial role of oil in modern warfare and prompted the U.S. government to encourage U.S. participation in the newly formed Turkish Petroleum Company, operating in present-day Iraq. A consortium of U.S. oil companies was sold 25 percent of Turkish Petroleum. By the early 1930s only Jersey Standard and Socony were left in the partnership, with each eventually holding 12 percent. Oil was first struck by the company, renamed Iraq Petroleum, in 1928, and by 1934 the partners had built a pipeline across the Levant to Haifa, Palestine. From Haifa, Socony could ship oil to its many European subsidiaries.

In the meantime, Vacuum Oil had made a number of important domestic acquisitions and had strengthened its already far-flung network of foreign subsidiaries, but continued to share Socony's chronic shortage of crude. The two companies, similar in profile and complementary in product mix, joined forces in 1931 when Socony purchased the assets of Vacuum and changed its name to Socony-Vacuum Corporation. The union was the first alliance between members of the former Jersey Standard conglomerate and created a company with formidable refining and marketing strengths both at home and abroad. To supply its joint Far East markets more efficiently, in 1933 Socony-Vacuum (SV) and Jersey Standard created another venture called Standard-Vacuum Oil Company (Stan-Vac). Stan-Vac would ship oil from Jersey Standard's large Indonesian holdings to SV's extensive marketing outlets from Japan to East Africa. By 1941 it was contributing 35 percent of SV's corporate earnings.

In 1934 Socony-Vacuum Corporation changed its name to Socony-Vacuum Oil Company, Inc. (SVO). The company's growth made SVO the second largest U.S. oil concern by the mid-1930s, with nearly $500 million in sales, exclusive of Stan-Vac. From warehouses and gas stations in 43 states and virtually every country in the world, SVO sold a full line of petroleum products, many of them sporting some variety of Vacuum's famous Mobil brand name or its equally familiar flying red horse logo. With 14 refineries in Europe alone and a fleet of 54 oceangoing tankers, by 1941 SVO's holdings were truly international in scope and balance–a situation that caused growing anxiety as World War II approached. When the Nazis stormed across Western Europe they found working SVO refineries that they promptly put into the service of the Third Reich. The largest prize, a huge refinery at Gravenchon, France, was destroyed by the retreating French in a blaze that lasted for seven days. Similarly, the $30 million Stan-Vac refinery at Palembang, Indonesia, was kept out of Japanese hands by burning it to the ground. The war also cost SVO some 32 ships and the lives of 432 crew members, lost to German submarines. Throughout this period, increased military sales generally made up for SVO's wartime capital losses and declining civilian revenue.

Socony-Vacuum Oil Company's search for crude oil continued. In the immediate postwar years SVO completed a transaction that would provide the company with oil for many years to come. In the 1930s, Standard Oil Company (California) and the Texas Company–later known as Chevron and Texaco, respectively–had bought drilling rights to a huge chunk of Saudi Arabia, and when they realized the extent of the fields there the two companies sought partners with investment capital and overseas markets. SVO and Jersey Standard had ample amounts of both, and they agreed to split the offered 40 percent interest in the newly formed Arabian American Oil Company (Aramco). SVO had second thoughts about so large an investment and settled for 10 percent instead. This miscalculation was rendered less painful by the truly enormous scale of the Arabian oil reserves. In the coming decade of economic growth and skyrocketing consumption of oil, SVO would develop and depend upon its Arabian connection even more strongly than the other major oil concerns.

Read more: Exxon Mobil Corporation Business Information, Profile, and History - Oil, Company, Standard, Jersey, and Billion

Death of Charles M. Everest

Died July 22, 1917 and survived by one son, Mr. Raymond W. Everest

Rochester, NY

Bragdon Architectural Drawings Roll #104
Department of Rare Books, Special Collections and Preservation

Everest, Raymond W.
Two houses on Appleton Street, Rochester, N.Y.
March 1907
Tube no. 104
Drawings on linen
House no. 1
south side
north side
1st floor
2nd floor

House no. 2
south and front or east
west and north
1st and 2nd floors
basement and 3rd floor

House no. 1
carpentry and painting - 19p.
masonry - 13p.

House no. 2
masonry 11p.
carpentry and painting - 20p.
plumbing - 12p.
electric wiring - 5p.

60 Everest, Charles M. Alterations to house at 720 Main St. W., Rochester, NY
71 Everest, Charles M. House at 56 West Avenue, Rochester, NY November and December 1902 and March 1903
64 Everest, Charles M. Alterations to house at 56 West Avenue, Rochester, NY
72 Everest, Charles M. Stable and buildings at 56 West Avenue, Rochester, NY March 1903 and October 1916
104 Everest, Raymond Two houses on Appleton Street, Rochester, NY March 1907

New York Times Obituary January 27, 1939

RAYMOND W. EVEREST, A RETIRED EXECUTIVE; Head of Vacuum Oil Company's Manafacturing Operations

Special to THE NEW YORK TIMES. ();
January 27, 1939,

History of ExxonMobil


Standard Oil Co. purchases a three-quarters interest in Vacuum Oil Company for $200,000. As a lubricants pioneer, Vacuum Oil introduces a number of popular products, including the revolutionary Gargoyle 600-W Steam Cylinder Oil

Matthew Ewing and Hiram Bond Everest founded Vacuum Oil Company in 1866 upon patenting a new method of distilling kerosene in a vacuum that produced a high-quality lubricant.

1920 Muhlenberg Hospital Womens Auxiliary

Mrs. R. W. Everest
1122 Martine Avenue

Monday Afternoon Club Membership